Environmental schemes used besides the taxes mentioned in the “corporate policy part”, according to OECD – EEA Economic Instruments database:
1. Deposit-refund system for glass with the purpose of waste prevention and resource conservation.
The EU PHARE Programme and the World Bank have assisted Albania in updating the 1994 National Environmental Action Plan. Ten priorities have been identified:
l Improving cooperation among ministries departments and local authorities;
l Developing suitable environmental policies;
l Promoting the sustainable use of natural resources;
l Improving the country’s environmental inspection structure;
l Establishing an information system;
l Improving environmental information available to NGOs and the public;
l Developing an adequate strategy with business on the environmental issues;
l Strengthening the environmental impact assessment system;
l Completing the country’s environmental legal framework; and
l Drafting local environmental action plans (LEAPs).
The new NEAP also takes into account the need to integrate environment into other sectors. For example, it envisages the development of a strategy and action plan for the development of sustainable transport, a sustainable and integrated rural strategy, a strategy for sustainable tourism, and a strategy and action plan for land protection against erosion. An inter-ministerial group led by the Deputy Chair of the Council of Ministers monitored the coordination of the NEAP preparation.
The Government has also decided to prepare local environmental action plans as a follow-up to the 1994 NEAP. The development of local action plans is in conformity with the strategy of decentralizing power to local governments. The LEAPs will provide for environmental assessment at the local level, the identification of priorities, the establishment of training programmes and the development of partnerships with NGOs. They will also set up local intersectoral coordination structures. The process has begun with the drafting of LEAPs for three towns (Korçe, Fier and Peshkopi) with support from the Regional Environmental Center (REC).
The 1998 National Waste Management Plan includes measures for solid, urban, industrial and hospital waste management, and for the rehabilitation of existing uncontrolled dumpsites. The Plan also contains a budget for finding appropriate solutions for the landfills.
The National Water Strategy was drafted in 1997, but it has not yet been adopted because of a lack of agreement among the authorities with competencies in water policy.
From 1993 to 1996 a programme for coastal zone management in Albania was initiated in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank and the European Union. In 1996, Albania drafted its Coastal Zone Management Plan, focusing on the development of tourism and biodiversity protection in the coastal area development of recreational activities, and institutional strengthening of the institutions responsible for coastal management. The Coastal Zone Management Plan was approved in 2002.
In 1999 the Government approved the National Environmental Health Action Plan that had been proposed by the Ministry of Health. The NEHAP identifies a number of specific objectives such as assessing environmental hazards related to health, establishing economic and financial instruments that promote environmental health improvement, and strengthening environmental health services and public information.
In 1999, the Council of Ministers approved the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, prepared under the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The main goal was to fulfil the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity, signed by Albania in 1994, and the provisions of the Pan- European Strategy on Biological and Landscape Diversity. The document defines national priorities and necessary institutional changes for the implementation of the Convention.
In 2001 the Albanian Government, in collaboration with the World Bank, prepared its Strategy on Growth and Poverty Reduction, which is the country’s first comprehensive economic development strategy with a focus on sustainable development. The Strategy should help the Government improve the effectiveness of its policies by identifying priorities and the measures needed to solve poverty problems. It also serves as a framework for identifying projects for international funding.
The Strategy on Growth and Poverty Reduction (“National Strategy for Socio-Economic Development”) contains a chapter entitled “Environment, Growth and Poverty Reduction”, which presents the long- and medium-term objectives for the environment. In the longer term, Albania would like to “achieve gradually appropriate environmental standards, in accordance with Albania’s commitments stemming from its association process with the EU”. The medium term objectives are oriented in three main directions: (i) to stop environmental degradation; (ii) to create conditions for the rehabilitation of polluted areas and bring them within minimum safety standards; and (iii) to make the use of natural resources more sustainable.
Selected national legislation related to environmental management and protection
l Laws on Land and its Distribution
l Law on City Planning
l Law on Forestry and the Forestry Police Service
l Law on Environmental Protection
l Law on the Plant Protection Service
l Law on Hunting and Wildlife Protection
l Law on Fishing and Fish Farming
l Law on Radioactive, Nuclear and Atomic Waste
l Law on Water Resources
l Law on Public Waste Disposal
l Law on Public Waste Disposal Taxation
l Law on Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Regulation
l Law on the Construction Police
l Law on the Organization and Functioning of Local Government
l Law on the Establishment and Operation of Soil Administration and Protection Structures
l Law on Air Protection
l Law on Protected Areas
l Law on Environmental Protection
l Decision on Gaseous Emission Standards
The legislation regulating the environmental sector of the Republic of Armenia originated in 1991. Over the past years 27 codes, laws and numerous normative acts ensuring the execution of the latter have been adopted. A number of environmental legal acts and certain environmental policy directions, which did not ensure sustainable management and conservation of the environment and natural resources as a result of economic processes, were also amended. In particular, since 2000, six codes and laws have been adopted in lieu of the ones adopted in the 1990s.
The development of the Second National Environmental Action Programme (NEAP-2) has been initiated and launched by the Ministry of Nature Protection of the Republic of Armenia with support of the UNDP Country Office in Armenia. The NEAP-2 is aimed at provision of an overall framework for integrated environmental management in the Republic of Armenia that optimizes utilization of the country’s natural resources and identification of overall environmental conservation policy.
By-laws are as follows:
l Program of Reconstruction of the Ecological Balance of Lake Sevan (1998),
l Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of the Republic of Armenia (1999),
l NAP on Combating Desertification in Armenia (2002),
l SPA Development Strategy and Action Plan (2002),
l National Forest Policy and Strategy of the Republic of Armenia (2004), National Forest Programme of the Republic of Armenia (2004), Action Plan of Supporting Measures for Illegal Forest Loggings (2004),
l National Profile on Chemicals and Waste Management (2004),
l Implementation Plan 2005-2010 for the National Action Plan on Implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Republic of Armenia (2004),
l Concept for Reduction of Harmful Emissions from the Motor Transport (2004), Set of Measures on Reduction of Harmful Emissions from the Motor Transport (2005),
l List of Measures on Fulfilling Obligations Assumed by the Republic of Armenia Under a Number of Environmental Conventions (2004), List of Measures for Intersecting Issues on Three Conventions – “On Bio-Diversity”, “On Climate Change” and “On Desertification” (2005),
l State Environmental Monitoring Concept of the Republic of Armenia (2006), Implementation Program for 2007-2011 on Issues Derived from the State Environmental Monitoring Concept of the Republic of Armenia (2007),
l National Water Programme of the Republic of Armenia (2006),
l National Program 2006-2009 on Implementation of Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation among RA and European Community and its Member States Addressed to the Integration in European Union (2006),
l Concept for Introduction of new biotechnology of artificial reproduction of populations of endemic species of fish of Lake Sevan (trout, khramulya, barbel) (2006).
l National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) puts forward a list of environmental priorities, setting 32 objectives grouped in five categories: pollution from industrial production, energy production, transport and other sources; the Caspian Sea; forestry, land and biodiversity; institutional development; and policy.
l National Programme on Environmentally Sustainable Socio-economic Development (2003) covers the environmental aspects of the country’s overall development strategy. It determines the main areas of sustainable development and includes a plan of action for 2003-2010 “to address the initial phase of the resolution of the current problems”.
l National Programme for the Restoration and Expansion of Forests (2003) lists activities in ten sub-sectors, along with indicative data on implementation, responsible institutions, financial sources and performance indicators.
l National Caspian Action Plan
Legislative and Regulatory Framework
l General laws: Law on Environmental Protection
l Ecosystem- and resource-specific laws: Law on Specially Protected Natural Areas and Objects, Law on Wildlife, Law on the Protection of Plants, Forestry Code, Law on Mineral Resources
l Medium-specific laws: Land Code, Water Code, Law on Air Protection
l Health and safety laws: Law on Environmental Safety, Law on Sanitary-Epidemiological Services, Law on Public Health, Law on the Radiation Safety of the Population
l Waste and chemicals management laws: Law on Industrial and Municipal Waste, Law on Pesticides and Agrochemicals
l Monitoring and information laws: Law on Access to Environmental Information, Law on Hydro-meteorology
Belarus has established ministries of energy, forestry, land reclamation, and water resources, as well as state committees to deal with ecology and safety procedures in the nuclear power industry.
Government restrictions on residence and use of contaminated land are not strictly enforced, and the government even announced plans in 2004 to increase agricultural production in the contaminated regions.
To date, the country formed a sufficiently developed legal framework in the field of environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. Leading position in it is the Law «On Environmental Protection» (1992, amended 2002), which has universal significance. Other laws and codes are more narrow focus and regulate, respectively, the mechanisms of environmental protection, Rational use and protection of individual natural resources, the solution of individual problems and other issues.
Together with the laws governing environmental protection and rational use of natural resources in Belarus are worked also a number of special laws aimed at ensuring the ecological safety of population. They are related to radiation, sanitary, industrial safety, protection of population and territories from emergency situations of natural and man-made. Environmental legislation of Belarus is developing on several fronts. They are associated with the updating of existing and new legislation, as well as the introduction of environmental standards in legislation relating to economic and other spheres of activity.
In 2006, it joined the Law of the Republic of Belarus «On hydro-meteorological activity», in 2007 – Law «On Wildlife» and «On treatment of Waste Management», in 2008 – Law on Air Protection and the Code of the Republic of Belarus on the interior and on the ground, in 2009 – Law «On State Ecological Expertise». Significant changes and additions were made to the Law of the Republic of Belarus «On Environmental Protection». In 2007 it introduced provisions that reflect the mechanisms for ensuring public access to environmental information and participation in environmental decision-making. In addition, for the first time legally enshrined the concept of «harm caused to the environment» and «environmental damage» determine the order size, how and when compensation for the harm caused to the environment.
For successful implementation of environmental policies, a priority to address the most important environmental problems, the optimal expenditure for these purposes in the country is planning for environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. Nowadays the basic document for long-term conservation planning – Main policies of Environmental Protection of Belarus until 2025 is worked out. It covers the most important environmental issues to ensure implementation of environmental interests of the individual, society and state. The strategic goal of environmental protection in the long term to 2025 determined to achieve new, higher its quality, providing an environmentally friendly living conditions, promoting solutions to global and regional Environmental issues, sustainable social and economic development of the Republic of Belarus.
Strategic issues in the field of environmental protection and rational use of natural resources linked with social and economic development provides a national strategy for sustainable socio-economic development, which is being developed for 15 years. To address medium-term objectives in the environmental field developed and implemented five-year National Action Plan on Rational Use of Natural Resources and Environment, and Environmental Health.
Territorial environmental planning is carried out within the framework of territorial complex schemes of environmental protection. In addition, environmental issues are also included in the developed integrated circuits of the territorial organization of administrative units at various levels, as well as schemes of land management areas. To address some of the most significant problems the country faces environmental safety, environmental protection and rational utilization of natural resources are taken special purpose programs. These include the State Program for overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the State Program on Water and Sanitation «Clean Water», National Program for management of municipal waste management schemes placement of specially protected natural areas. In 2005-2008 the state implemented a program to improve the environmental situation in Naroch Lake. Scientific support of environmental policy is part of the state of scientific and technical programs. Crucial among them is the State Scientific-Technical Program «Ecological Safety».
Environmental schemes used besides the taxes mentioned in the “corporate policy part”, according to OECD – EEA Economic Instruments database:
Although neither the State nor the entities have an environmental policy, some important programmes for environmental action have been prepared and adopted in recent years. The Global Framework Strategy for Economic Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina for 2001-2004 touched on some related issues. And, in Republika Srpska, pursuant to its new Law on Environmental Protection, work has begun on drafting an environmental protection strategy.
The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) was the first document specifically oriented to environmental problems. It was prepared with the support of the World Bank in both entities in parallel and with the participation of representatives from ministries, scientists from research institutes and academic institutions, and NGOs. The intended output of the process is an environmental action plan for the whole country that would outline long-term priorities, provide assistance to environmental officials to participate in ongoing international processes, give guidance in drafting laws and policies, and support institution building. The eight priorities identified in NEAP are: water resource management and waste-water treatment; sustainable development in rural areas; environmental management (information system, integral planning and education); protection of biological and landscape diversity; waste and waste management; economy and sustainable development; public health; and demining.
Much attention has been given to the finalization and approval of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper or Mid-term Development Strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2004-2007), which was adopted on 5 February 2004. The Paper gives a broad overview of the national economic and social situation in all sectors, including the environment and water. The priorities of the environment sector identified in the Paper, including in its Action Plan, generally follow those set out in NEAP. Most of the measures envisaged in the Paper, however, are short-term. The Paper is considered by the Environment Ministries in both entities as the environmental strategy paper and the expectation is that it will play this role for a certain time. However, according to some observers, there are differences of opinion between the two entities on the role of the State in environmental protection, and the Paper does not provide sufficient arguments in favour of environmental protection and sustainable development.
The Council of Ministers has adopted an initiative of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations to draft a strategy for environmental protection and sustainable development. This has also received the support of the National Steering Committee for Environment and Sustainable Development. In 2002 both chambers of the Parliamentary Assembly supported the drafting of this document, and the House of Peoples of the Parliamentary Assembly also required the Council of Ministers urgently to prepare an action plan for drafting the strategy.
Other environmental policy-making documents are the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP), prepared under the Global Environment Facility and approved in December 1999, and the State Strategy for Solid Waste Management, prepared under the European Union (EU) PHARE Programme and adopted in 2000-2001 by the Governments of both entities.
A biodiversity strategy and a nature protection strategy are planned. There is no policy for water management and water protection. Some strategic documents prepared in the former Yugoslavia such as the Water Management Master Plan (published in 1994) are still followed in both entities.
There are also some local initiatives to develop local environmental action plans (LEAPs) in both entities.
Environmental schemes used besides the taxes mentioned in the “corporate policy part”, according to OECD – EEA Economic Instruments database:
1. Deposit-refund system for glass with the purpose of waste prevention and resource conservation.
2. National Environmental Protection Fund is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of supporting the implementation of priority goals of national environmental policy. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution and waste management. There are 3 sub-schemes of this instrument:
- Grants: Up to 70 percent of total project costs may be financed by grants provided by the Fund in the case of equipment and construction investments and up to 50 percent for non-investment projects, such as trainings and awareness-raising. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities, clean-up of earlier pollution and training of employees.
- Interest-free loans: Interest-free lending, 12- month grace periods and up to 36- month repayment periods. Up to 70% of total project costs can be supported. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities and clean-up of earlier pollution.
- Soft loans: Interest rate of 10 - 50% of the interest rate of Bulgarian National Bank. Up to 70% of total project costs can be supported. The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities and clean-up of earlier pollution.
3. National Trust EcoFund is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of managing the funds gained through debt-for-environment swap agreements and financing the environmental protection projects. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution and waste management.There are 2 sub-schemes of this instrument:
- Grants: Up to 30 percent of total project costs may be financed by grants. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, energy saving, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities and clean-up of earlier pollution.
- Interest-free loans: The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, energy saving, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities and clean-up of earlier pollution.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l National Programme for Waste Management for 2009-2013 period
l National Strategy for Biodiversity Conservation (adopted in 2009, updated in 2010)
l National strategy for developing and managing the water sector by 2015
l National strategic plan for the stage by stage reduction of biodegradable waste for disposal. (2010 - 2020)
l Project for National Strategy for waste management of construction and demolition for the period 2020 (under preparation)
l Energy Strategy on Bulgaria until 2020
l National Long Term Programme for Encouraging the Use of Biomass 2008-2020
l National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency 2008-2010
l National Action Plan for Renewable Energy (2010)
l National Development Plan for organic farming in Bulgaria for 2007-2013
l National Programme for Fisheries and Aquaculture 2009-2013
l Programme for priorities in the Development of Bulgarian Agriculture for 2009-2013
l National Programme for the Support of Sustainable Development of Fisheries 2008-2013
l National Action Programme for the Sustainable Management of Lands and Combating of Desertification 2007-2013
l National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Forest Sector In Bulgaria 2006-2015
1. Deposit-refund system for glass bottles with the purpose of reusing of glass packaging and waste minimisation. It was introduced as a voluntary scheme, based on contracts between wholesalers/retailers and beverage producers.
The Action plan for sustainable consumption and production represents a framework for the development and implementation of programs and measures for sustainable consumption and production in the five-year period. Measures foreseen in the SCP Action Plan cover also the issue of sustainable management of natural resources.
The Action plan on Adriatic Sea, coast and islands: since the Adriatic Sea and coast are considered a resource of strategic importance for sustainable development of Croatia, resource efficiency is going to be a very important part of it. Croatia signed the Protocol on integrated management of coastal zones to the Barcelona convention and the implementation of this Protocol will be of high importance for the efficient resource management of the coastal zones and the sea.
The Environmental protection and energy efficiency Fund (EPEEF) performs financing, preparation, implementation and development of programs, projects and related activities in the field of conservation, sustainable use, protection and improvement of environment and in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy use.
Part of the funds raised through taxes is used to achieve the goals of improving air quality, soil, water, sea, mitigation of climate change and ozone layer protection through financing the projects that have as their purpose the development of systems for measuring air quality and emissions, the construction of filters for purifying emissions into the environment, reconstruction of existing plants to reduce harmful emissions, the transition from solid fuels to gaseous fuels, improving the existing boilers and construction of eco heating plants. Certain funds have been invested in projects of biological and landscape diversity.
The second part of the fund is invested in energy efficiency projects which include the implementation of national energy programs and energy audits, promotion of renewable energy sources and sustainable building, promotion of educational, research and development studies and programs, promotion of cleaner transportation technologies and information campaigns like “Promoting energy efficiency in Croatia”, “Energy Management in Cities and Counties” and governmental “Program for energy efficiency in buildings owned by the state - Bring your house in order” developed in collaboration with the UNDP Croatia.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l The National Waste Management Strategy assesses the situation, identifies the problems and obstacles and establishes the framework for waste reduction and sustainable waste management. The srategy is being implemented through a National Waste Management Implementation Plan 2007-2015 which serves as a framework document for waste management plans of the counties and for elaboration of individual projects that fit into the county/regional integrated waste management system. The concept of the Plan is based on the waste management hierarchy which gives priority to waste prevention, recycling, reuse and other types of recovery.
l The Water Management Strategy is a fundamental national long-term strategic water management document. It establishes a unified water management policy and an integral and coordinated approach to improving the water system in line with international commitments. It also defines strategic goals, establishes current and future needs and services, and identifies how they might be met through management plans for the 4 river basins in the country.
l The Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan for 2008-2011 is an enforcement document which sets up fundamental objectives of air quality protection/improvement and long-term measures for their accomplishment.
l The Strategy and Action Plan for the Protection of Biological and Landscape Diversity for 2008 - 2018 focuses on conservation of biological and landscape diversity, harmonization of legislation with the relevant EU directives and regulations, meeting the obligations resulting from the international agreements, establishment of nature protection IT system with the database connected to the national IT system and improvement of institutional and extra-institutional aspects of education on biological diversity and the public participation in decision-making procedures.
l The Energy Strategy has a purpose to define the development of Croatian energy sector by 2020 while acknowledging accession process and adoption of the EU acquis thus ultimately building sustainable energy system that satisfies 3 basic objectives: security of energy supply, competitiveness of energy sector and economy and environmental protection and sustainable energy sector development. An Action plan that will underpin the Energy Strategy should be adopted by the end of 2011.
l The National forest policy and strategy aims at increasing the contribution to the national economy by sustainable management, use and comprehensive protection of forest resources and biodiversity, by applying research results, compliance with international norms and resolutions, and by taking into consideration the rights of local communities.
l The Strategy for the development of Industrial processing of wood and paper recognizes that the ecosystem management should become one of the priority activities for each branch of this sector and by that it primarily relates to the implementation of measures such as introduction of the statutory basis for organizing the collection of waste paper (incentives) or introduction of the ECO label.
l The main purpose of the Strategy for agriculture and fisheries is to determine the dynamics of the realization of the objectives defined by the Law on Agriculture. A few of those objectives refer to sustainable management and efficient use of national resources, for example: conservation of natural resources and promotion of sustainable agriculture, protection of rural areas and preservation of the traditional rural values, promotion of the efficient production in agriculture in order to achieve competitiveness in domestic and world markets, etc.
1. Allowances for environmentally friendly vehicles are environmentally motivated subsidies with the purpose to reduce CO2 emissions by providing incentives to consumers to buy environmentally friendly vehicles. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change. Allowances are: a) 50% reductions for road permit and for vehicle registration fee if vehicle has dual energy consumption (e.g. petrol/electric); and b) 50 CYP road permit and 10 CYP registration fee paid if vehicle fully driven by alternative fuels.
2. Fund of Quarrying is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to provide grants for mitigation of environmental damages caused by quarrying. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, natural resource management, noise and land management. 75% of the Fund's assets are for grants for local communities that are affected either directly (land reclamation, noise) or indirectly (dust emissions). Remaining 25% are used for rehabilitation of closed quarries.
3. Grants for cleaner production technologies are environmentally motivated subsidies with the purpose to stimulate industries and service sector to invest in cleaner production technologies. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, natural resource management and energy efficiency. Companies may apply for grants to finance equipment and technologies that will improve their environmental performance, including energy efficiency equipment, filters for flue gases, waste-water treatment plants etc. The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, energy saving and operation of treatment facilities in plants.
4. Grants for energy saving and promotion of alternative energy sources are environmentally motivated subsidies with the purpose to provide incentives for investments in energy savings and alternative energy sources. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change and energy efficiency. The activities supported are: energy saving and market penetration of clean products.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l The Energy Efficiency National Action Plan 2007 aims at implementation of certain measures in households, industry, and transportation in order to minimize energy consumption and increase energy efficiency. There’s a target of 10% energy savings by 2016. There are also certain measures applied (e.g. subsidies) regarding the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Saving Mechanisms, as well as horizontal measures such as educational programs, awareness campaigns, printed material etc.
l The Renewable Energy Sources National Action Plan 2010 – 2020
l The Integrated Mobility Master Plan (2011) aims at increasing 10% of public transport by 2020
l The National Action Plan for Green Public Procurements: Resource efficiency is tackled through a number of measures including purchasing of green products. The GPP Action Plan incorporates the total number of criteria of EC GPP tool kit. Aims at increasing environmental criteria for public purchasing in order to minimize environmental impacts and increase financial sustainability. The GPP Action Plan is about promoting green products and services in government. There are 12 categories, Save energy (boilers, air conditions, computers, fridges, move photocells, heat insulation, printers, etc.), electricity (lambs, LED, solar panels etc), save water (dual flush cistern etc), food, buildings (heat insulation etc.), stationary, cleaning, products, furniture, mobile phones, textiles, gardening and transport.
l The National Strategy for the update of management processes of Municipal Solid Wastes until 2020 aims at reducing waste and increasing waste recovery and recycling.
l Action Plan for the support of Public Transportation aims at minimizing fuel consumption as well as CO2 emissions and increasing resource efficiency.
l Waste Management Strategy aims at the promotion of recycling and recovery and sets the basis for waste prevention.
l Measures for water efficiency in Cyprus
1. Deposit-refund system for glass bottles with the purpose of waste minimisation and saving on raw materials..
2. 7th Framework Programme (FP7): The programme is a tool of European Community for co-financing research and development projects. Support aims at international co-operation for solving european research topics; mobility; and enhancement of research capacities. In operation up to the year 2013. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change, natural resource management, land management and energy efficiency. Tematic priority “Environment”: research and education,, sustainable management of natural and human sources, cohesion of relations among biosphere, climate, ecosystems and human activities. 4 areas of interest: 1. Climate change, pollution and risks, 2. Sustainable management of resources, 3. Environmental technologies, 4. Earth monitoring and assessment of sustainable development. For “Environment” in the 2007-13 period earmarked totally 1890 mill EUR.
3. Contribution to zoological gardens is an environmentally motivated subsidy in support of national and international programs of Czech zoological gardens, conservation of biodiversity (endangered and other wildlife species breeding), environmental education. The domain addressed by the instrument is natural resource management.
4. Development and restoration of water supply and sewage systems: Improvement of technical equipment of municipalities (water treatment, sewerage). The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution and natural resource management. There are 3 sub-schemes of this instrument:
- Sewage system subsidies (Programme 129 183): Aimed at building and reconstruction of sewerage systems, sewage treatment plants. For small municipalities (up to 2000 inhabitants) max. 80 % of total eligible costs may be covered by subsidy (up to 20 mil CZK). For others max. 65 % (and also for the part of costs above 20 mil. CZK). Possible to combine with soft loan. The activities supported are: research and development and investment in physical capital.
- Soft loans
- Water treatment subsidies (Programme 129 182): Aimed at building of water pipes for public needs aimed at provision of population with drinking water, technology enhancement in water treatment, improvement of quality of drinking water. For small municipalities (up to 2000 inhabitants), max. 80% of total eligible costs may be covered by subsidy (up to 20 mil CZK). For others, max. 65% (and also for the part of costs above 20 mil. CZK). Possible to combine with soft loan. The activities supported are: research and development and investment in physical capital.
5. EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism: Environmental protection and support of sustainable development. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, land contamination, natural resource management. Max. 60% of eligible costs of project/programme (except activities otherwise financed from budgets of local and regional governments, where the maximum is 85%; and NGOs, where the maximum share is 90%).
6. Exemptions from Real Estate Tax. The domains addressed by the instrument are land management and natural resource management. There are 2 sub-schemes:
- Exemptions from Real Estate Tax: Areas of protection forests, special purpose forests and water bodies (which do not serve for intensive and industrial fish farming); (§ 4) plots of land that serve as a functional unit with buildings serving exclusively to environmental protection purposes; plots of specially protected areas according to law on nature and landscape protection (but in national parks and conservation areas only plots in Ist zone of protection ); public accessible parks; plots of land for public transport.
- Exemptions from tax on buildings: Dams and other water structures serving for flood-control, river regulations, water purification and sewage strucctures; public transport buildings and power distribution; (§ 9): structures serving exclusively for environmental protection purposes; buildings that have changed heating system from solid fuels to RES (solar, wind, geothermal, biomass) - for 5 years from change exempted from paying the tax.
7. Fund for Rural Development: Ensures operation of European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development. Targeted at all Lisbon goals (knowledge society, domestic market and corporate environment, labour market and sustainable development). The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, natural resource management and land management. There are 2 sub-schemes:
- Priority axis 1 - Agriculture, forestry and food processing: 8 sub-axes, among which 3 are compatible with environmental motivation: I.1.2 Investment in forests, I.3.1. Further environmental education and information activities, I.3.4. Utilization of consultancy. All targeted at sustainable agriculture, forest management and nature conservation.
- Priority axis 2 - Improvement of environment and landscape: 6 subaxes, all compatible with environmental motivation (II.1.1 subsidies for mountain areas - LFA, II.1.2 NATURA 2000 and Directive 2000/60/ES - WFA, II.1.3 Agroenvironmental treatment, II.2.1 Afforestation of farmland, II.2.2-3 Forest-environmental treatment, II.2.4 Forest revitalisation after calamities)
8. Landscape conservation programme: This programme contains land care programme and land care programme for reserves (protected areas). It concerns protection of the landscape against erosion, biodiversity conservation, water system stability. The domains addressed by the instrument are land contamination, natural resource management and land management. There are 3 sub-schemes:
- Measures in specially protected areas, bird areas and sites of community importance: Non-investment grants - up to 100% of the project costs. Measures from conservation plans for areas in question are supported; also completion of conservation plans itself. Scope: technical equipment of protected areas (nature trails, information boards, fencing etc.), disposal of former interferences with negative effects in the area (waste disposals, invasive species, erosion), measures for existence of nature units and endangered species under protection (revitalization of ecosystems).
- Enhancement of extant natural environment and landscape: non-forest measures (protection from erosion, conservation of cultural state of landscape, conservation and restoration of sites eminent for endangered species); systems of ecological stability treatment, care for memorable trees; creation of small landscape features (restoration of balks and game refuges).
- Conservation and care for endangered and handicapped animals: Care for endangered animals which a view to their returning to nature; care for permanently handicapped animals for rearing and public enlightenment. Up to 100% of eligible costs.
9. Landscape Natural Function Restoration Programme: During the Operation Programme “Environment” implementation (i.e., by 2013), there have been financial limits for most measures. Therefore, the Landscape Natural Function Restoration Programme shall be used for financially less expensive measures. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change, natural resource management and land management. There are 6 sub-schemes:
- Management and care of specially protected areas, bird areas and sites of community importance: management and documentation of areas in question, care plans, border marking, natural trails marking and construction, construction and maintenance of building equipment, operation of visitor centres, removal of (former) negative interferences in the area. Up to 100% eligible costs. Max. 1 mil CZK for BA and SCI (other measures unlimited).
- Recovery programmes / Action plans and management programmes for specially protected wildlife species: Realisation of Recovery Programmes, Action Plans, Management Programmes for specially protected wildlife species; preparation of new programmes; preparation of background materials for programmes and plans in question. Maximum amount of subsidy for 1 project not limited.
- Climate change adaptation measures for water ecosystems: supporting adaptation measures in the landscape related to the existing and projected climate change effects in water (enhancement of natural functions of watercourses, recovery or creation of wetlands and nature-close water reservoirs, recovery of System of Ecological Stability bound to water regime). Max. 1 mill. CZK for 1 project.
- Climate change adaptation measures for non-forest ecosystems: recovery of vegetation, disposal of disallowed waste sites, care of tree species, soil protection from erosion, reduction of invasive species dissemination, creation and recovery of landscape features. Max. 250 000 CZK per project.
- Climate change adaptation measures for forest ecosystems: Enhancement of space, species and age diversity of forest, effect on endangered species; reduction of invasive species dissemination; leaving of wood mass and reserved trees in forest after logging; completion of forest-manatement plans. Max. 250 000 CZK per project. Leaving of wood mass in forest: 500 CZK per m³; Leaving reserved trees after logging: 400 CZK per m³; completion of forest-management plan: 650 CZK per ha.
- Background materials for enhancement of natural environment and monitoring: preparation and completion of background materials for enhancement and monitoring of natural environment; assessment of landscape programmes´ efficiency; assessment of state of landscape. Maximum amount of subsidy for 1 project not limited.
10. Mining reduction is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of attenuation of state owned mines. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, natural resource management and land management.
11. Programme of subsidies for housing: Development or regeneration of housings' technical infrastructure, housing estates and exteriors of panel-buildings. The domain addressed by the instrument is land management. There are 3 sub-schemes:
- Programme of panel-building regeneration: Investment or non-investment grant aimed at realisation of exterior treatment of housing estates. Maximum share 70% of total eligible costs.
- Support of lead water pipes renovation: Non-investment purpose grant to households or other house owners. Max. 10 000 CZK per apartment in the house. Aimed at mitigation of lead in drinking water to get in compliance with Council Directive 98/83/ES (until November 2013 at the latest).
- Support of technical infrastructure construction: Purpose investment grant, max. 50 000 CZK per housing unit. Infrastructure amenity of newly developed residential areas. Not environmentally aimed - may contribute to suburbanisation.
12. Radon programme: Nuclear safety, radiation, protection of inhabitants. Search for dwellings with high concentration of radon in interior, preventive radiological measures in dwellings and water objects, information of public, research and development. Non-investment and investment purpose grants. Aim: provide public with information on radon radiation, its measurement and evaluation, its prevence and solutions of its presence (in dwellings and water supply network mainly). Subscheme in operation during 2010-2019 period. Max. 150 000 CZK for a dwelling; 100 000 EUR for public building or water supply network. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and land contamination.
13. Reduced tax rate in the value-added tax for environmentally friendly goods and services is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to enhance consumption of environmentally less harmful goods and services. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and transport. The following goods and services are not taxed according to the basic tax rate (20%), but to a reduced tax rate of 10%: fuel wood, public ground transport, water treatment and supply services, sewage tratment and related services, municipal waste collection, transport and liquidation, water transport of passengers, entrance to zoological and botanical gardens, natural reserves and national parks (Annex 1 and 2 of Act no. 235/2004).
14. Removal of flood damage: It concerns damages caused on water courses and water constructions that are in the state property. The aim is to prevent occurrence of secondary damages caused by non-action. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, natural resource management.
15. Restoration of damages caused by mining is an environmentally motivated subsidy aimed at evitalisation of old mining workings owned by state before 1989. Prevention of occurrence of secondary environmental damages, damages on economic assets and operational accidents connected with existence of those workings. In the first years financed from privatisation yields. The domains addressed by the instrument are land contamination, natural resource management and land management. There are 3 sub-schemes:
- Investment grants: at present, mainly verification of disposed mining workings, disposal of surface constructions, sanitation and recultivation of land and sludge beds, asset settlement.
- Non-investment grants: at present mainly verification of disposed mining workings, disposal of surface constructions, sanitation and recultivation of land and sludge beds, asset settlement.
16. State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic – Landscape and natural environment programmes: Protection of landscape and natural environment. This record includes particular national programmes implemented in that area. The domains addressed by the instrument are natural resource management and land management. There are 5 sub-schemes:
- Programme of care for the natural environment: Legal persons established for nonprofit-making purposes, households: max. limit from basis for calculation of support: 80%, all of which as a grant, no upper limit on the amount. For business entities (companies, state enterprises, co-operatives, entrepreneurs): max. limit from basis for calculation of support: 80%, there of 40% as a grant and 40% as a loan, no upper limit on the amount.
- Improvement of the environment in municipalities located within national parks: Noninvestment and investment grants. Max. limit 70% of eligible costs; limit differs per measure. Four measures: 1. Environmental education, information and consulstancy ; 2. Low-range measures (small waste sites, sewage works, urban greenery, visitors infrastructure); 3. Energetic self-sufficiency; 4. Co-financing projects from Oper. Prog. Environment (up to 5 %).
- Support for winners of Green ribbon competition: Financial prizes for winners of national Green ribbon competition (municipalities) - Care for greenery and environment. Subsidy is provided in cooperation with Ministry for Regional Development. Aim: enhancement of state of municipal concourses, natural features and municipal greenery so as to preserve (or restore) countriside character. Up to 100% of eligible costs; max. 400 000 CZK for winner of Green ribbon; 700 000 CZK for winner of Green ribbon of the Czech Republic.
- Support of land buy-out in specially protected areas: Up to 100% of eligible costs. Primarily for national natural monuments, national natural reserves, national parks. Secondary also for zones 1 of protected landscape areas, natural reserves and monuments and other plots of land necessary to protect endangered species, caves or other geomorphologic features.
- Support of species biodiversity of non-productive plants: Aim: diversity enhancement of residential and landscape greenery; conservation of genetic potential of domestic nonproductive plants (mainly endangered or culturally important); monitoring and care for majestic trees; information, education and consultancy concerning species biodiversity of nonproductive plants. Up to 100% of eligible costs (only 90% may be paid out before the end of project).
17. State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic – Programme to promote environmental education and enlightenment: Promote environmental education and enlightenment. This record includes particular national programmes implemented in the area of environmental education and enlightenment. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, waste management, natural resource management, ozone layer depletion and land management. There are 3 sub-schelmes:
- Support to promote environmental education and enlightenment: Investment grants. Legal persons established for nonprofit-making purposes: max. limit from basis for calculation of support: 70%, all of which as a grant, max. CZK 2 million per project per year. In 2008 changed: max. 30 million per project.
- Programme to support development of environmental centres: Non-investment grants. The max. amount of supply is stated in particular calls. The aim of this programme is to grant a subsidy to operate a functional network of centres of environmental (ecological) education and environmental (ecological) consultancy offices in order to make environmental education and enlightenment and environmental consultancy available throughout the entire territory of the Czech Republic.
- Programme to support projects aimed at actual environmental subjects: Noninvestment grant. Aim: support of innovative subjects (topics), long-term priorities in education and enlightenment. Subject of subsidy: realization of education and enlightment activities, campaigns, issuing of publications and periodicals, coordination of national and international cooperation
18. State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic – Programmes to promote renewable energy sources: Promote the use of renewable energy sources. This record includes particular national programmes implemented in the area of RES and administred by Ministry of Environment. Programmes are subscheme B (Resort Part B) of State programme in support of energy savings and use of renewable energy sources. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and energy efficiency.
19. State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic – Protection of air programmes: Protection of air quality. This record includes particular national programmes implemented in the area of air quality protection. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and ozone layer depletion. The only active component of the instrument is the programme to protect the ozone layer of the Earth. Legal persons established for nonprofit-making purposes: max. limit from basis for calculation of support: 80%, all of which as a grant. The aim of this programme is the comprehensive provision of disposal of regulated substances and products which are put out of use and contain regulated substances which deplete or endanger the ozone layer of the Earth. These substances are defined in the Annex to Act 86/2002, the Air Protection Act as subsequently amended.
20. State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic – Protection of waters programmes: Protection of waters. This record includes particular national programmes implemented in the area of water protection. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, noise, ozone layer protection, energy efficiency and land management. There are 2 active sub-schemes:
- Support for municipalities afflicted by the 2010 flood: Loan without interest with 7-years term of expiration. Noninvestment projects; Aim: to repair and replace small water buildings destroyed by floods in year 2010. Two measures: X1: Renovation of sewerage system and wastewater treatment plants (max. 10 millions CZK per project); X2: Renovation of small water utilization infrastructure (enhancement of water reservoirs capacity; max. 5 millions per project). Up to 100 % of eligible costs.
- Support for water monitoring: Medodic and realization activities in monitoring water quality. 2 measures: 1. Metodic support for complex monitoring of water quality (noninvestment and investment - special software purchases; aim: to prepare a methodology for monitoring water quality), 2. Realisation (aim: operation of water monitoring such as water sampling and assessment. Limit: max. 10 millions CZK per year of subsidy.
21. State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic – Waste management programmes: To improve waste management. This record includes particular national programmes implemented in the area of waste management. The only active component of the instrument is the programme to support car wreck management systems that offers support for operation of car wreck management systems through net of accredited processing establishments with priority of material or re-use of car wreck waste.
22. State programme in support of energy savings and use of renewable energy sources: Promotion of energy savings and the use of renewable energy sources in industrial enterprises, households, public buildings, transport. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change, natural resource management, energy efficiency and transport. The programme has two parts. Investment and non-investment grants aimed at renewable energy sources (extension of utilisation, development and research, pilot projects, international projects, consultancy, education and propagation). Financial participation of applicant 0-60%.
23. Support for flood prevention is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of flood risk reduction in floodplain areas.
24. Support for remedying environmental damages caused by the Soviet army: Removal of ecological damages caused by Soviet army. This subsidy scheme is valid up to the year 2012. The programme focuses on localities abandoned by the Soviet army (sanitation, monitoring, supervision etc.). Remedy of ecological loads is accomplished by tender. Total amount of subsidy from 2001 to 2009 is 1 420 mil CZK; from present to 2016 total amount of 170 mil CZK is expected
25. Support to NGOs: Support activities of non-governmental non-profit organisations in the area of environmental protection and sustainable development. Non-investment grants. Upper limit for 1 project ca. 250 000 CZK, yearly amount of subsidy ca 20-30 mill. CZK. Grants are provided ex ante for activities in subsequent year. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change, waste management, natural resource management, land management and transport.
26. Supporting and Guaranteeing Agriculture and Forestry Fund: Subsidies are aimed at agriculture, flood loans and management of municipal assets (including forest management). Aimed at development of municipal affairs, such as urban planning; technical infrastructure; sewerage and water supply; social, cultural, environmental and sport activities, education and informations; and foremost forest management and restoration of social function of the forest. Direct investment or non-investment grant, intensity of aid derived from sum of value added tax on eligible costs of project authorised by Rural Development Programme. The domains addressed by the instrument are natural resource management and land management.
27. Tax deductions in the Personal Income Tax is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to motivate individual entities (natural persons) to donate for environmental purposes. Allowable expenses on gifts: gifts to municipalities, regions, organisational units of state, corporations based in the Czech republic and corporations organising public collections for subsequent purposes: ecologic, financing of removal of natural disaster consequences in the Czech Rep., the EU, Norway or Iceland.
28. Tax exemptions and deductions from Corporate Income Tax is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to motivate legal entities (corporate bodies) to donate for environmental purposes. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management.
29. The Green Savings Programme is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of cutting emissions of CO2 by 1.1 mill tonnes (1% of Czech emissions), lowering household expenses on heating, enhancing RES utilization in heating by 3.7 PJ, cutting PM10 emissions by 2.2 mill kg. Total expected allocation up to 25 billion CZK. In operation up to year 2012. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and energy efficiency. There are 4 sub-schemes:
- Energy savings in heating: complex insulation; partial thermal insulation;
- Construction in the passive energy standard;
- Use of renewable energy sources for heating and hot water preparation: replacement of environment unfriendly heating for low-emission biomass-fired sources and efficient heat pumps; installation of low-emission biomass-fired sources and efficient heat pumps in new buildings; installation of solar-thermal collectors;
- Subsidy bonus for selected combinations of measures: some combinations of measures are eligible for a subsidy bonus (an application must be submitted at the same time and no more than once per building, even if more than one of the listed combinations is used).
30. The Operational Environmental Programme: Protection and improvement of environment. Co-financed by the Cohesion Fund and the European Regional Development Fund, the National Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic and the state budget. All projects are required to have public co-financing. Subsidies up to 90% of eligible expenses. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, energy efficiency and land management. There are 8 priority axes:
- Priority axis 1 – The improvement of water management infrastructure and reduction of flood risks. Aim: to reduce the pollution of ground and underground water, improve the quality and supply of drinking water and reduce flood risks. Subsidies: 1.1 The reduction of water pollution; 1.2 Drinking Water Quality Improvement; 1.3 The reduction of flood risks. Up to 90% of eligible costs.
- Priority axis 2 – The improvement of air quality and reduction of emissions. Aim: To improve air quality and reduce emissions with emphasis placed on using new, environmentally friendly ways of energy production and energy savings. Subsidies: 2.1 The improvement of air quality; 2.2 The reduction of emissions. Grants up to 90% of a project's total eligible expenses.
- Priority axis 3 – The sustainable use of energy sources. Aim: to use energy sources in a sustainable manner and to promote energy savings. To use renewable energy sources for generating electricity and producing heat and to use waste heat more efficiently. Grants up to 85%. Subsidies: 3.1 The construction of new facilities and the modernisation of the existing facilities; 3.2 Realisation of energy savings and the use of waste heat.
- Priority axis 4 – The improvement of waste management and the rehabilitation of old ecological burdens. Aim: To improve waste management, to reduce waste production and to rehabilitate old ecological burdens. Subsidies: 4.1 The improvement of waste management; 4.2 The rehabilitation of old ecological burdens
- Priority axis 5 – The limiting of industrial pollution and environmental risks. Aim: to reduce industrial pollution with emphasis placed on the prevention, research and monitoring of pollutants. Subsidy: 5.1 Limiting industrial pollution. Includes also REACH initiative.
- Priority axis 6 – Improving the state of nature and the landscape. Aim: to eliminate or mitigate the decrease in biodiversity, to protect endangered plant and animal species, to provide ecological stability of the landscape and to form and preserve natural elements in settled areas. 6 subsidies (implementation and management of the NATURA 2000; biodiversity;landscape recovery;landscape water regime;regeneration of urbanised landscape;prevention of landslides, rock avalanches, geofactors). Grants up to 90% of a project's total eligible expenses.
- Priority axis 7 – The development of infrastructure for environmental education, consultancy and awareness. Aim: to build a broad network of environmental training centres and information centres focused on environmental protection. Subsidy: 7.1 Development of infrastructure for the implementation of environmental education programmes, the provision of environmental consultancy and environmental information.
- Priority axis 8 – Technical assistance. Aim: to support the efficient management and monitoring of the implementation of the Operational Programme Environment.
31. Eco-labelling system is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose to promote the production and use of environmentally friendly products. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, waste management, energy efficiency. There are 64 sub-schemes for this instrument, depending on the product type.
32. EMAS - Eco-Management and Audit Scheme is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose to reduce environmental impacts of industry (business) through EMS implementation. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, waste management, energy efficiency.
33. Green public procurement scheme is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose of promoting environmentally friendly products.
34. Voluntary agreement on co-operation with Chamber of Commerce: to strengthen a co-operation with representatives of a Czech industrial (business) sector. To promote the implementation of voluntary instruments.
35. Voluntary agreement on co-operation with Confederation of Industry and the Business Council for Sustainable Development: to strengthen the co-operation with representatives of the Czech industrial (business) sector.
36. Voluntary agreement on co-operation with construction industry: to strengthen a co-operation with representatives of the Czech construction industry. To promote the implementation of voluntary instruments in the construction industry.
37. Voluntary agreement on co-operation with Czech Confederation of Commerce and Tourism: to strengthen a co-operation with representatives of a Czech tourism and service sector (legislation, voluntary schemes, promotion, etc.)
38. Voluntary agreement on expansion of natural gas use in transport: to support measures to secure an expansion of CNG use in transport, mainly to ensure construction of refuelling stations (100 stations till 2020). To reduce emissions generated form transport. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change.
39. Voluntary agreement on packages: Support integrated system of dealing with municipal waste, collect data, support secondary market. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
40. Voluntary agreement on reduction of stomatology mercury environmental impacts: to reduce environmental impacts of mercury used in stomatological facilities. To equip stomatological facilities with amalgam separators. The domain addressed by the instrument is water pollution.
41. Voluntary agreement on reduction of the environmental impacts of washing powders: a reduction of undesirable impacts of washing powders on surface water quality. The domain addressed by the instrument is water pollution.
42. Voluntary agreement on take-back of portable accumulators: to create and support system of take-back for portable accumulators. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
The establishment of a real Egyptian Environmental institutional and legal framework was in 1994, with the issuance of the Environment Protection Law 4/1994. The Law established the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA) followed by Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (MSEA) in 1997. EEAA continued to be the Ministry's execution arm; its function and responsibilities include all environmental management areas.
The Environmental Protection Fund (EPF) was established in 1995, with the objective “to stimulate environmental investments and support the environmental, social and economic policies in the pursuit of sustainable development”. EPF assists polluting enterprises to reduce pollution by providing them information, resources and financial incentives. EPF funding mechanism was designed and tested in the World Bank’s Egypt Pollution Abatement Project I (1998-2005).
The environmental legislation framework in Egypt constitutes of numerous sectoral laws implemented by a large number of government agencies. EEAA is the main governmental regulatory body. The main laws are as follows:
l Law 93/1962, regulating waste-water discharge to public sewage systems
l Law 48/1982, protecting all surface waters and groundwater
l Law 4/1994 (environment law) established the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and created an intricate web of standards and monitoring, record-keeping, and enforcement mechanisms with respect to air pollution, hazardous and solid waste management, and environmental impact assessments (EIAs).
l Law 9/2009, an update to the prominent Law 4 of 1994.
1. Deposit refund system for containers for alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages with the purpose of waste minimisation. There are 4 sub-schemes according to the type of container: aluminium cans, glass bottles, plastic bottles non-reusable up to and including 0.5 litres and plastic bottles, re-usable and non-reusable bottles bigger than 0.5 litres.
2. Environmental Investments Centre (EIC) Foundation is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to finance the international, national, regional and local programmes and measures, which are in conformity with the National Environmental Strategy. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, noise, ozone layer protection, energy efficiency and land management. There are 10 sub-schemes of this instrument:
- Environmental management: Grants for implementing environmental management system, develop measures to avoid and reduce pollution, developing best available technology, reduce the negative impact of the energy industry and improve the condition of ambient air, grants for renewable energy or for the renovation of combined generation plants. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, energy saving, clean-up of earlier pollution and investment to reduce pollution.
- Environmental programme: Grants are given through environmental programme that has the following main sectors: water management, environmental management, forestry, nature conservation, environmental awareness, waste management, fishery, regional programmes and granting environmental loans. Revenues include EU Structural fund co-financing. Support to investment projects may not exceed 90% of total capital costs. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities, market penetration of clean products and training of employees.
- EU Structural Funds: Grants given through EU assistance programme. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, energy saving, clean-up of earlier pollution, market penetration of clean products and training of employees.
- Granting environmental loans: soft ad-hoc loans for the implementation of environmental projects based on European Investment Bank (EIB) and the Ministry of Finance signed loan agreement. There are 3 types of loans and criteria: 1)Loan can be from 30 000 to 1.9 mill. EUR but not more than 75% of project costs, interests 6 month euribor+risk margin, loan can be up to 15 years. 2) Loans to co-finance water measures, 100% of self-financing part, interests 6 month euribor+risk margin, loan can be for 20 years. 3) Advisory (trust) fund, non-governmental organsations or foundations, maximally 191 735 EUR and 50% of the project costs or self-financing part for 3 years, exceptionally 5 years.
- Green Investment Scheme: a financing mechanism where finances that come from the trading of country's CO2 quotas under the Kyōto Protocol are channelled to environmental projects and programmes that help to lower the CO2 emissions. The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, energy saving, market penetration of clean products and other environmental projects and programmes that help to lower the CO2 emissions.
- Nature conservation: Grants to protect the nature in order to preserve its diversity, to ensure the good condition of natural habitats and the natural animal, plant and fungi species and to preserve natural environments of cultural-historical and aesthetic value. To develop nature protection related infrastructure, to grant environmental supervision and monitoring, preparation for emergencies. The activities supported are: research and development and investment in physical capital.
- Other external aid (Life+, Phare, Transition Facility etc). The activities supported are: research and development and clean-up of earlier pollution.
- Other programmes: includes subsidies given under the environmental awareness, forestry, fishery, hunting, regional programmes, granting environmental loans. The activities supported are: research and development and investment in physical capital.
- Waste management:develop the sorted waste collection and recovery of infrastructure and to prevent and reduce environmental pollution. The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, operation of public treatment facilities and clean-up of earlier pollution.
- Water management: The objective is to maintain and achieve a good condition of bodies of water and ground water and to ensure the conformity of drinking water with the requisite requirements. elimination of residual waste from former military and industrial areas and also at the improvement of the condition of flowing bodies of water through investment plans. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital and clean-up of earlier pollution.
3. European Union Emission Trading Scheme is a tradable permits system with the purpose to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Estonia. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change.
4. International Emission Trading according to the Kyoto Protocol is a tradable permits system with the purpose to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Estonia. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and energy efficiency. The permit system type consists quotas according to Article 6 and Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol.
5. Voluntary agreements are voluntary approach instruments with the purpose of: pollution reduction, fulfilment of EU requirements and introduction of ISO 14001 standards, promote sustainable environment usage, reduce waste and water pollution. No revenues are received, no tax exemptions or benefits are given. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, waste management and energy efficiency. Voluntary agreements are company based.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
1. National Waste Management Plan 2008-2013 (2008)
Objectives are reducing waste deposition, increasing waste recovery and reducing harmfulness of waste, in order that the negative impacts to the environment are minimal.
2. Water Management Plans for 3 watersheds (East-Estonian, West-Estonian and Koiva watersheds) and 9 sub-basins (last one was approved in 2010)
Water management plans require results from the EU water policy directive 2000/60/EC, which aims at maintaining and improving the aquatic environment in the Community. One of the objectives in the water management plans is to promote sustainable water use and protect surface waters and groundwater as in principle renewable natural resources.
3. National Development Plan for the Use of Oil Shale 2008-2015 (2008)
Objective is to ensure the use of oil shale as efficiently and as environmentally friendly as possible with the state’s primary interest being the uninterrupted supply of electricity and heating energy to Estonia’s consumers meaning that the best available technology (BAT) must be applied in the mining and processing stages.
4. National Development Plan for the Use of Construction Minerals 2011-2020 (2011)
One of the objectives is increasing the efficiency of extraction and use of construction minerals and the use of possible alternative building materials.
5. Forestry Development Plan until 2020 (2011)
Main goal is to ensure productivity and vitality, diverse and efficient use of forests.
6. Hunting Development Plan 2008-2013 (2008)
Objective is to maintain the diversity of game species and ecological balance between habitats and species in view of recreational, social and economic aspects of hunting.
7. Estonian Fisheries Strategy 2007–2013 (2007)
Objective is to develop the fisheries sector in order to secure stable and sustainable management in the fisheries sector and to guarantee an increase in the income of people engaged in fisheries.
8. Recreational Fisheries Development Plan 2009-2013 with perspective till 2018 (2009)
Objective is to popularize, simplify and diversify recreational fisheries as healthy leisure and sustainable use of fish resources and thereby to increase the number of people engaged with recreational fisheries to one hundred thousand (7% from population) by 2018.
9. Nature Conservation Development Plan 2020 (in the process of approval)
Objective is to ensure systematised and reasoned nature conservation and management of biodiversity protection, resource saving and optimised use and regulation of distributing revenue based on single political guidance paper.
10. Development Plan for Enhancing the Use of Biomass and Bio energy for 2007–2013
(2007): The vision is to ensure efficient and sustainable use of Estonia's land resources and biomass.
11. National Development Plan for Energy Sector until 2020 (2009)
Objectives are ensuring continuous power supply to Estonian population, more sustainable power supply and energy consumption and ensuring justifiably priced power supply to consumers.
12. Development Plan for Estonian Electricity Sector until 2018 (2009)
Objective is to ensure continuous, sustainable power supply at a justified price in Estonia.
13. Action Plan for Renewable Energy until 2020 (2010)
Objectives are increasing renewable energy percentage from final consumption, renewable electricity percentage from gross consumption and biofuel percentage from transport.
14. Energy Conservation Programme for Estonia 2007-2013 (2007)
Objective is to ensure more efficient use of fuels and energy in Estonia.
15. Program for better implementation of environmental management principles in public sector (2009)
Objective is introducing environmental management principles and commissioning environmental management systems in the public sector. One of the many projects under the program is “Improving the administrative capacity to conduct Green Public Procurement and energy efficiency”.
Environmental taxes in Estonia are grouped into four categories: pollution taxes, resource taxes, energy taxes and transport taxes. Resource taxes include the mineral resources extraction charge, the water abstraction charge, the fishing charge, the forest stand cutting charge and the hunting charge.
A Mineral resources extraction charge is paid for the extraction, use or rendering unusable of mineral resources belonging to the state. The following minerals are subject to the mineral resources extraction charge: dolomite, granite, gravel, sand, limestone, clay, peat, phosphatic rock, oil shale, and crystalline building stone.
A Water abstraction charge is paid for the right to abstract water from a water body or groundwater, if the water abstraction is at least 30 cubic metres in a day from water bodies or 5 cubic metres in a day from groundwater (excl. abstraction of mineral water). In addition to drinking water and water for technological use, the water abstraction charge is requested on water abstraction from quarries and mines and cooling water abstraction as well.
A Fishing charge is paid for rights to fish or collect aquatic plants. The nature of the fishing charge is dependent on the type of fishing activity (recreational fishing, commercial fishing, special purpose fishing).
A Forest stand cutting charge is paid for rights to do regeneration cutting in a forest which belong to the state. Owners of private forests should not pay the charge, but they should pay 26% of the income from the sale of regeneration cutting rights and the income from the sale of timber received from regeneration cutting.
A Hunting charge is paid for the right to use the hunting district for hunting, but the charge is different in case of species and quality of hunting district.
1. Tax allowances for introduction of environmentally friendly technologies are environmentally motivated subsidies with the purpose to provide incentives for environmental investments and introduction of cleaner technologies. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, land contamination, energy efficiency and transport. The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, energy saving, operation of treatment facilities in plants, operation of public treatment facilities and market penetration of clean products.
The adoption of preferred tariffs for electricity produced by small hydro-power plants, and electricity produced from wind and biomass is considered to be important. In light of future success, two tenders for small hydro-power plants, wind powered plants and biomass, announced by the Ministry of Economy. The first tender had 40 locations available and the second had 28 locations.
In order to stimulate the use of solar energy in the country, the Government has started a subsidies scheme through which the Ministry of Economy covers 30% of the supply value for solar panels for the first 500 solar panel purchases, adequately installed in households.
Some of the Government’s reforms include the changes in the law for VAT which accounts for a reduction in the VAT from 18% to 5% for thermal solar panel systems and components.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l Strategy for Energy Efficiency in the Republic of Macedonia (2003) is still in force and complements the new strategy from 2010; initiates a large spectrum of programs that aim to increase energy efficiency, and which are related to government, public administration or municipal administration, and businesses in general, civil sector and households.
l Strategy for use of renewable sources of energy in the Republic of Macedonia until 2020; exploits the potential and opportunities for renewable energy sources.
l Strategy for increasing energy efficiency in the Republic of Macedonia until 2020; develops a framework for enhanced adoption of practices for energy efficiency in a sustainable way, and through implementation of programs and initiatives which are related to decreasing the dependence on imports, energy intensity and unproductive consumption of energy, with maximum participation from the private sector.
l Waste management strategy of the Republic of Macedonia 2008-2020; defines the fundamental directions in the area of waste management, based on the hierarchy of principles in waste management as well as the basic principles of sustainable use of natural resources.
l National plan for waste management in the Republic of Macedonia 2009-2015; in which specific measures and activities are defined relating to the legal, institutional, organizational and economic aspects, as well as technical infrastructure for implementation of waste management policies and accounting for the priorities in waste management and sustainable use of resources, prevention and waste recycling.
l National strategy with action plan for organic agriculture of the Republic of Macedonia 2008-2011 ; emphasizes goals to develop organic farming and products, strengthening cooperation with all relevant parties and strengthening of the market oriented organizations and forms of cooperation.
l National strategy for sustainable development of forestry 2006; In this strategy, as a basis we see how the contribution from the forestry sector to the national economy and rural development is addressed, through emphasis on sustainable management with forest resources, and securing the protection of the local environment as part of the global heritage.
l The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), adopted in 2000, sets out six priorities among the actions aimed to address environmental problems. These include: the rehabilitation and improvement of water supply and sewage systems; an increase in the share of municipal transport and monitoring of fuel quality; a policy to prevent pollution by encouraging the introduction of best available techniques (BAT) and cleaner production methods; the improvement of waste management through the application of economic instruments; the introduction of integrated coastal zone management to address the environmental problems of the Black Sea; the preservation of biodiversity, including that of forest ecosystems.
l The national programme and action plan on climate change;
l The national programme and action plan for phasing out ozone-depleting substances;
l The forestry development strategy;
l The integrated coastal zone management programme;
l The national Black Sea strategic action plan;
l The biodiversity strategy and action plan;
l The State programme and action plan on environmental education;
l The strategy (concept) of the State programme for improving fuel quality;
l The national action programme to combat desertification.
The legal framework for environmental protection
l Legal framework: Law on Environmental Protection, Law on Ambient Air Protection, Law on the Transit and Import of Wastes Into and Out of the Territory of Georgia, Law on Pesticides and Agrochemicals, Law on Hazardous Chemical Substances, Forest Code, Law on Specially Protected Areas
l Licensing of natural resource use and environmental permitting: Law on Environmental Permits
1. General subsidy for environmental investments is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to support environmental investments favouring regional development. The subsidy consists of a grant covering 25-40% of total eligible investment costs.
2. Subsidy for clean technologies and products is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote environmentally sound and clean technologies, and new and innovative products. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, natural resource management and energy efficiency. The subsidy consists of a grant covering up to 40% of the costs. The activities supported are: research and development, energy saving and market penetration of clean products.
3. Subsidy for ecological areas is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to sustain the installation of ecological areas. The domains addressed by the instrument are natural resource management and land management.
4. Subsidy for landscape and nature conservation is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote landscape and nature conservation. The domains addressed by the instrument are natural resource management and land management.
5. Subsidy for pesticide-free cultivation is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote pesticide-free cultivation of cereals and grain. The domain addressed by the instrument is natural resource management.
6. Subsidy for waste treatment facilities on farms is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote installation of waste facilities on farms for protection of water quality. The domains addressed by the instrument are natural resource management and water pollution.
Since 2001 the Programme for the recycling of waste tires, end-of life vehicles, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), waste batteries and accumulators and waste oils has established the polluter-pays principle, requiring the participation of producers of such waste in Alternative Management Systems, so as to organize their collection, after separating them at source, transport, temporary storage and recovery. Additional waste streams such as construction/ demolition (CD) waste have been added to the program in recent years. The overall target of this programme is to promote the recovery of usable materials from waste streams and to reduce the production of new packaging materials and other products (e.g. batteries/accumulators).
In 2010, the Action Plan for energy conservation in urban/commercial housing for the period 2010 – 2015 was launched where energy conservation measures in buildings are financially supported and implemented.
The overall promotion of renewable sources of energy is accelerated: financial instruments were launched in 2010 and have recently started to be implemented for investors interested for photovoltaic systems and for other renewable sources (e.g. wind energy).
Green Public Procurement Programmes are set up in new legislative measures for whole public sector in Greece.
Promotion of the purchase of new “resource efficient” vehicles by withdrawing from the market those cars which were produced up to 1998 and giving economic incentive (reduction of taxes) for the purchase of new technology (better fuel utilization, less emissions).
1. Green Investment Scheme: Climate Friendly Home Program is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of increasing the energy efficiency of buildings from the revenues coming from the transfer of Kyoto units. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and energy efficiency. There are 2 sub-schemes of this instrument:
- Energy Efficiency Sub-programme: Grants for energy efficiency refurbishment and the application of renewable energy sources in conventionally built residential buildings and the construction of new energy saving residential buildings.
- Panel Sub-programme: Revenues from the sale of carbon-dioxide emission allowances have to be spent on supporting the renovation and modernisation of existing public panel buildings
2. Light bulb change programme is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, climate change mitigation, raise awareness and giving financial assistance to elderly people, large families and disadvantaged people. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change and energy efficiency. The subsidy consists of non-repayable financial assistance for disadvantaged people (elderly people, large families, etc) to buy energy saving light bulbs and simultaneously gathering the traditional light bulbs.
3. EU Emissions Trading Scheme is a tradable permits system with the purpose to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. The domain addressed by the instrument is climate change.
4. Kyoto Emissions Trading Scheme is a tradable permits system with the purpose to stimulate sustainable development through technology transfer and investment, to help countries with Kyoto commitments to meet their targets by reducing emissions or removing carbon from the atmosphere in other countries in a cost-effective way. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l Waste prevention and waste management: New Hungarian Waste Management Plan (under approval)
l Water and waste water: Protection Programme of the Underground sources of drinking water in Hungary, National Waste water Collection and Treatment Implementation Programme (until 2015)
l Agriculture/food sector: New Hungarian Rural Development Programme (NHRDP, 2007-2013, National Rural Strategy 2011-2020 (to be adopted soon, containing environmental, agricultural and rural development pillars)
l Forestry: Hungarian Forestry Program and its Implementation Plan 2006-2015
l Energy and energy efficiency: Energy Strategy until 2030 (under finalization), Hungarian Energy Efficiency Action Programme 2008-2016, National Renewable Energy Action Programme 2010-2020, etc.)
l Industry: Environmental Technology Innovation Strategy (under elaboration, aiming at cleaner production, eco-innovation)
l Construction: sectoral energy strategy (time horizon 2020) is being elaborated
l Transport: National Transport Concept (under preparation) 2010-2030 (ambitious modal split rates, transport consciousness, waterways, etc.)
1. Deposit system on non-refillable beverage containers with the purpose to recycle or reuse non-refillable beverage containers. Applies to PET, tin cans and glass, up to 1.5 litres, with efforts concentrating on expanding the collection and recycling of containers of 1.5 litres and above. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management and land management.
2. Accelerated depreciation for solar facilities is an environmentally motivated subsidy that offers tax reduction in order to encourage the use of renewable source energy. The domain addressed by the instrument is climate change. The subsidy is for commercial facilities of photo-voltaic/ solar-thermal technologies & solar boilers.
3. Cleanliness Maintenance Fund. The cleanliness law establishes a Cleanliness Maintenance Fund, to finance a broad range of environmental activities. The law also empoweres the Minister of the Environmental protection to appoint voluntary inspectors and Cleanliness Trustees, to report on littering offences. The domains addressed by the instrument are waste management, natural resource management and land management. The grant is given to a broad range of environmental activities according to environmental issues that the Ministry of Environmental protection decide to promote. The activities supported are: operation of public treatment facilities and clean-up of earlier pollution.
4. Incentives to renewable energy producers - Feed-in tariffs is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of encouraging energy production from renewable energy to reduce consumption of energy based on fossil-fuels. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and energy efficiency. There are 4 sub-schemes:
- All renewable energy producers (excluding solar, wind and photovoltaic): The electricity produced is being bought, at a high rate, by the national electricity cooperation. The prices range between 1.12 - 1.79 Euro per kWh. Max price is used when there are no emissions at all. If the renewable energy producer emits in production, it will be deducted from the incentive.
- Photovoltaic energy producers: Small producers, up to 50 kW, will receive 2.01 ILS per kWh. Large producers, between 50 kW and 5 MW, will receive 1.6 ILS per kWh.
- Solar energy producers: The electricity produced is being bought, at a high rate, by the national electricity cooperation. 1.97 ILS per kW for facilties that joined in 2009. 2.1 ILS per kW for facilties that joined in 2008. Small producers (up to 20 MW): 15.3 cent € per kWh Medium-large producers (20 MW and up): 12.2 cent € per kWh
- Wind energy producers: 1.6 ILS will be payed per KWh to facilities production up to 50 kW.
5. Marine pollution prevention fund is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of preventing and combating marine and coastal pollution, clean-up operations, purchasing equipment for preventing marine pollution, operating contingency plans for large-scale pollution events, filing indictments against polluters and conducing practical research and surveys. The domain addressed by the instrument is water pollution. The Marine Pollution Prevention Fund concentrate the financial resources for preventing and combating marine and coastal pollution and a Marine Environment Protection Fee imposed on all ships calling at Israeli ports and on oil terminals.
6. Old vehicle scrapping programme is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of reducing pollutant emissions from the old vehicle fleet. Owners of vehicles at least 20 years old, with a valid vehicle registration license, may deliver their cars to dedicated lots, where vehicle scrapping will take place. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and transport. The programme offers cars owners payment for transferring their old vehicles for scrapping and metal parts recycling.
7. Subsidies for construction and demolition waste treatment plans is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of encouraging building waste recycling plants. The domains addressed by the instrument are land contamination and land management. Budgetary allocations go toward increased enforcement against illegal disposal of construction waste and assistance in the establishment of recycling plants.
8. The quarries rehabilitation fund's objective is to rehabilitate abandoned quarries and to prepare their infrastructure for future land usage. The domain addressed by the instrument is land management. The Fund's role is to finance solutions for the rehabilitation of quarries by raising money from active quarries. The Fund mechanism helps to handle both old and new quarries rehabilitation.
9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme: Israel, which is classified as a non-Annex I country under the Climate Change Convention, ratified the Kyoto Protocol in February 2004 and soon afterwards created a Designated National Authority (DNA), thus paving the way for implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Israel. The Clean Development Mechanism is a mechanism defined by the Kyoto protocol whereby projects with a component that induces the reduction or sequestration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are implemented. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change, waste management, energy efficiency and transport.
10. GHG emission reduction reporting system: Voluntary system for registration and reporting of GHG emissions to develop procedures and technologies to reduce emissions. The domain addressed by the instrument is climate change.
11. Green building standard is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose of reducing the negative effects by environmental construction process: the eco-building is focusing on energy, land and water aspects. The domains addressed by the instrument are land contamination, waste energy efficiency and land management.
12. Green label: Label that is given to a product defined as less harmful for the environment - a product that improves energy efficiency, reduces the use of hazardous materials, reusable etc. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, ozone layer protection, energy efficiency and transport.
The main environmental law is the Environmental Code 2007, as amended (Environmental Code). The Environmental Code replaced several environmental laws to align the national law more closely with the prevailing international standards of environmental regulation. In this respect, the Environmental Code establishes:
l General principles of environmental legislation, such as sustainable development, duty of care to the environment and free access to ecological information.
l Procedures for mandatory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) for certain activities.
l General principles of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions' reduction and carbon trading.
Additional rules relating to environmental protection are contained in a number of laws including the:
l Law on Subsoil and Subsoil Use 2010 (Subsoil Law).
l Water Code 2003 (Water Code).
l Forest Code 2003.
The main environmental regulator is the Ministry of Environmental Protection (Ministry). A subdivision of the Ministry, the Committee on Ecological Regulation and Control, is directly responsible for setting the quotas for emissions into the environment.
In August 2009, a separate subdivision of the Ministry, the Department of the Kyoto Protocol, was established to facilitate the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
Main adopted legislation in water, waste and air sector:
l Law for Waste Management and Disposal (2006)
l Law for Spatial Planning (2004)
l Law for chemicals (2007)
l Law for protection from noise (2007)
l Administrative Directive on regulation and standards for emissions from stationary sources (2007)
l Administrative Instruction on rules and standards of the discharges on air by the stationary sources of pollution;
l Administrative Instruction of waste and oils that are used;
l Administrative Instruction on Administration of end of life vehicles and their Wastes;
l Administrative Instruction for waste from battery and expended accumulator
l Administrative Instruction for construction and Demolition Wastes
Important developments have been achieved in the legislative framework in the water, waste and air sector, both in a horizontal and a vertical aspect. The new draft law on environmental protection has passed through the parliamentary committee and will soon get approval. The draft law on EIA and IPPC are also undergoing procedures in the parliamentary committee and are in line with relevant directives. However both of these drafts lack practical aspects. The draft law on IPPC covers only large activities according to the first annexes of the directive and does not cover other activities.
From the legislative aspect waste collection is well covered, although there is a mixture of competencies between the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP) and the Water and Waste Regulatory Office (WWRO) particularly in the local level while the municipality is left outside.
Since January 2006 the following progress can be reported in relation to developing legislative framework for developing and implementing environmental infrastructure projects:
l Framework Law for Environmental Protection approved in the parliamentary committee (2008) awaits approval in the parliament.
l Law on IPPC (in the procedure of approval in the parliament in 2008)
l Law for Environmental Impact Assessment (in the procedure of approval in the parliament in 2008)
l Law for Air Protection (approved by the parliament in 2004 and it is planned to be amend in 2008)
l Law for Water (approved by the parliament in 2004 and it is planned to be amended in 2008)
l Nature Protection Law (approved by the parliament in 2006 and it is planned to be amend in 2008)
l Law about protection from radioactivity (expected to be approved in 2008)
l Law on Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment (the law is in the procedure of approval in the parliament in 2008)
l Administrative Directive on regulation and standards for emissions from mobile sources (draft is in the procedure of approval in the Government).
The following developments can be identified for developing strategies and programmes relevant for environmental infrastructure projects development:
l The Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2006-2010 (2006). The Action Plan is a part of the Governmental Programme and aims at gradual improvement of the environmental situation and with that the improvement of public health in general in Kosovo.
l Energy strategy for Kosovo UNSCR 1244 (2006)
l Waste Water Treatment Strategy (2004).
l Sustainable Development Strategy (under development)
l Draft Development Strategy of Kosovo (2007-2013). In the draft strategy three thematic environmental strategies are included: Strategy for Air, Strategy for Biodiversity and Strategy for Waste. Proposed regional waste water treatment plants are included in the Draft Development Strategy and it is expected that revisions will be needed for these regional waste water treatment plants. It is planned that the strategy will be adopted in 2008.
l Kosovo Environmental Strategy and Sustainable Development (2004)
l Strategy on Waste (under development)
The available strategies and/or programmes have all defined national sectoral priorities.
Main developments in strategies and programmes relevant for environmental infrastructure projects:
l Strategy on Air Quality (in process of drafting);
l Strategy on Waste (in process of drafting);
l Strategy on Biodiversity (in process of drafting).
1. Deposit refund system for bottles with the purpose to enhance the development of packaging management system. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management. There are several sub-schemes according to the type of container: brown beer bottles (0.33 and 0.5 litres), colourless beer bottles, containers for beer bottles, containers for mineral water bottles and colourless mineral water bottles.
2. Green Point Programme - packaging and packaging waste is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose of minimisation of packaging waste. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management. The participants in this scheme are: the Ministry of Environment and Regional Development, voluntary association of companies that produce and use packaging, the Packaging Management Council and environmental organisations.
3. Voluntary packaging management programme is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose to minimise waste, thus reducing environmental pollution and contributing to rational use of natural resources. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management. Tax relief and rebates are available to companies that voluntarily implement used packaging management programmes in accordance with the Latvian Green Point operational principles. State Revenue Service together with Packaging Management Council is supervising and monitoring the applications for voluntary programme
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l Transport Development Strategy 2007 – 2013 sets the main policy trends for infrastructure quality, public transport development and safe sea transport. Aim: Qualitative and competitive transport system integrated into Eurasia transport system, safe transport and widely accessible public transport and logistic services. Secondary aims: comfortable and safe road transport and railway system; effective public transport system; safe sea transport system in accordance with international standards; growing transport and logistic service export, competitive port service and connected transport chain.
l Draft Action Plan for Government Declaration Implementation includes initiatives towards resource efficiency in transport sector: electrification of railway, increasing low fuel consumption and low emissions vehicles, use of local natural resources, developing ports’ infrastructure.
l Strategy for Energy Development 2007-2016 targets energy efficiency and increase of share for renewable energy in energy sector. Aim: – to elaborate strategy for safe, resource efficient energy supply system, to ensure efficient use of energy, quality of life, economical growth and environmental quality – promote accessibility of resources for growth of economic, ensure safety of energy supply increasing self supply and diversification of suppliers; to ensure energy accessibility and sufficiency of energy for domestic users; rise use of renewable resources and production of electricity in co-generation; to ensure prevention of environmental quality fulfilling aims of SEG emission reduction;
l Strategy for Renewable Energy Consumption 2006-2013 aims to increase renewable energy share in the total Latvian energy balance and foster safety of Latvian energy provision. Aim:- to increase share of renewable energy in the total energy balance, to promote safety of electricity supply, to ensure in long term renewable energy involvement in SEG emission reduction.
l Energy efficiency is also addressed in Latvian First Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008-2010. It deals with reducing fuel consumption in transport sector and motivating consumers to apply energy efficiency measures in different energy consuming sectors.
l National Waste Management Plan 2006-2012 focuses on waste reduction and recycling initiatives as well as on promotion of sustainable consumption. Aim – to diminish amount of generated waste, using better technical possibilities to prevent waste generation, increasing resource efficiency and promoting sustainable behavior. Reduction of biodegradable waste deposited in landfills comparing to 1995 75% (2010), 50% (2013), 35% (2020); regeneration rate of packaging 60% by 2015.
l Climate Change Mitigation Program 2005-2010 covers initiatives for reducing greenhouse gas by increasing renewable energy, promoting cleaner production and ensuring biogas collection from waste landfill sites.
l Rural Development Strategy Plan 2007-2013 focuses on prosperous people in sustainably inhabited rural area. It includes sustainable and effective forestry, preserving and renewing biodiversity in agriculture and forest areas, healthy food grown in environmentally sound manner.
l Development plan for Forests and forest based industries development, approved in 2006 sets long term policy aims for forest sector development.
1. Deposit refund system for beverage containers to increase reuse of glass packaging. Government approves list of packaging to be included into deposit refund system, and sets deposit refund rates. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management. The scheme applies for glass bottles of up to an including 0.5 litres.
2. Energy Efficiency/Housing Project (EEHP) is an environmentally motivated subsidy that supports private and public initiatives to improve energy efficiency in residential and public buildings. The scheme is a mixture of grants and soft loans. Home-owner associations can receive a state grant for up to 30% of project cost, and an additional soft loan (interest rates on average 2-3 percentage points lower). Partial VAT exemption applies. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change and energy efficiency.
3. Environmental Investment Fund is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of supporting public and private sectors in implementing environmental projects in accordance with Lithuanian Environmental Strategy. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, and waste management. There are 3 sub-schemes of this instrument:
- Interest rate subsidies: The Fund may subsidize up to 100 percent of loan interest for the period of up to 3 years, with an interest subsidy of maximum LTL 400,000 (EUR 108,000). The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants and operation of public treatment facilities.
- Interest-free loans: The loan may constitute up to 80 percent of the overall project value. The activities supported are: research and development, investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants and operation of public treatment facilities.
- Soft loans: Interest rates were around 6% in 1999 and 7% in 2000, while average market rates for loans with maturity over 1 year were 12.4% in 1999 and 11.4 percent in 2000. Repayment periods of up to 5 years, grace periods of maximum 2 years. The loan may constitute up to 80 percent of the overall project value. The activities supported are: investment in physical capital, operation of treatment facilities in plants and operation of public treatment facilities.
4. Lithuanian Environmental Investment Fund (LEIF): The main goal is to support public and private sectors in realization of environmental projects. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, waste management and energy efficiency. LEIF provides subsidized loans/soft loans and interest subsidies for loans taken from commercial banks. Average interest rate for such loans is 2% (max 5%), and loan subsidy for eligible projects is up to 30% of the loan (of max LTL 2 mil). Projects eligible for financing are selected on environmental and technical criteria. Form of support (soft loan or subsidized loan) and amount of subsidy (if subsidized loan) depends on priorities areas set and environmental performance of the project.
5. Tax exemptions for bio-fuels is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to foster production and use of bio-fuels herewith to reduce use of oil fuels and emission of greenhouse gases. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change. Fuels obtained from biological raw materials are excise duty exempt. Motor fuels and gas oils mixtures with bio-fuels are taxed at reduced rate, proportional to the share of biological raw materials in the product. Zero VAT rate is applied to bio-fuels.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l The National Energy Strategy (2007) defines the main targets set by the State and directions for their implementation in modernising the country’s energy sector, adjusting it to the growing State demand and the most recent international requirements relating to efficiency, reliability, environmental and management improvement. For the implementation of the provisions laid down in the Strategy, the Government of Lithuania approves a five-year Strategy implementation plan and programmes of action, setting specific deadlines for their implementation, together with the sequence of actions, amount and sources of financing as well as the designated implementing institutions. It also foresees the renovation of residential houses, including the insulation and upgrading of heat supply systems.
l National strategy for the development of renewable energy sources (2010)
l The Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2007) revises current situation of consumption of energy use, evaluation of energy saving potential, sets the national energy savings targets and describes their calculation and strategy of achievement of these targets. Energy efficiency is one of the principal strategic goals of energy system of Lithuania. The national energy savings target is achieved through the implementation of specific sectoral measures as well as horizontal and cross-sectoral measures. The largest energy savings potential in Lithuania exist in the building sector (economic savings potential about 30%) through renovation of the existing buildings and upgrading their energy systems. Therefore, the majority of energy efficiency improvement measures are focused on financing of the projects of improvement of energy efficiency in residential and public buildings. In addition to measures aimed at improving energy performance of buildings, the Action Plan also provides for measures in the industry and transport sectors as well as cross-sectoral and horizontal energy efficiency improvement measures.
l National housing strategy. Approved by the Government in 2004, aims to ensure efficient use, maintenance, renovation and modernization of existing housing, as well as efficient energy use.
l The programme for modernization of multi-apartment buildings (2004, a2009), implements the goal of the Lithuanian Housing Strategy to ensure effective use, maintenance, renovation and modernization of existing housing as well as efficient energy use. The main goals of the Programme are to increase the efficiency of energy consumption in multi-apartment buildings.
l National strategic waste management plan 2007-2013 (2007): Waste management has the strategic goal to ensure rational use of material and energy resources of waste. The targets for biodegradable waste management shall ensure that biodegradable municipal waste disposed to landfills accounts for by 2013 not more than 50 % of the total amount of biodegradable municipal waste generated in 2000. By the end of 2012, organizational and/or technical conditions are created for annual collection and utilization of at least 60% of packaging waste measured by the amount packaging released on the internal market.
l Drinking water supply and waste water management development strategyfor 2008-2015 (2008, a2009) Sets the goals and targets of drinking water supply and management of waste water.
l National strategy for implementation of united nations framework convention on climate change (2009). Was developed to implement the provisions of Articles 3 and 4 of the UNFCCC. The objectives of this Strategy are: to ensure more effective monitoring of climate change; to ensure the assessment of vulnerability of the landscape, ecosystems and biological diversity, and the planning of adaptation options; to reduce the impact of the energy, industry, transport, agricultural and forestry sectors on the climate; to upgrade the waste management system with a view of reducing generation of GHG and their impact on the climate; to reduce the impact of climate change on human health, to develop research and to raise public awareness in combating climate change; to achieve the objectives laid down in the Strategy, the tasks and measures are envisioned and approved by the Government.
l Lithuanian forestry policy and its implementation strategy(2002) There are set of the main long-term goals: managing of forest resources according to sustainable development principle; preserve and increase forest resources and improve their quality and their rational use; preserve and enhance the sustainability of forest ecosystems.
l Baltic Sea protection strategy (2010) and action plan 2010–2015 for the Strategy for the Baltic marine environment protection (2010)
l Biological diversity preservation and protected areas planning and management programme for 2007-2013 (2007, a2010)
l Programme of the Lithuanian fisheries sector 2007-2013 (2007, a2008),
l Plant genetic resources preservation programme (2007). Implementation of this programme will preserve plant biological diversity and ensure the effective use of genetic resources.
l State strategy of use of underground resources (under preparation): aimed at ensuring the rational use of mineral resources and contribute to the country's modern economic creation. In order to achieve this objective, is expected that a change in the use of mineral resources legislation will be required.
1. Deposit refund scheme for beverage containers with the purpose to reduce the amount of waste going to landfills. According to Legal Notice 158/98, non-alcoholic beverages in Malta may only be traded and consumed in refillable glass bottles subject to this deposit refund scheme. However due to EU obligations, Malta was expected, by the end of 2007, to introduce a new environmentally friendly bottling system. Most soft drinks and beer were contained in glass bottles but according to the EU packaging directive, Malta had to, by the end of 2007, package these goods in plastic containers. The argument is that it is cheaper as well as more efficient to recycle plastic bottles rather than glass bottles.
2. Deposit refund scheme for LPG cylinders
3. Refund for the collection of oil: The public is being encouraged to collect containers against a deposit fee of Lm0.50 from local council and then to dispose the used oil at the nearest petrol station. The only incentive for households participating in this scheme is a token which can be exchanged for gifts drawn by means of a lottery. A scheme introduced by the Ministry for Rural Affairs and the Environment (MRAE) together with WasteServ to encourage the collection of cooking oil from the public, was launched in 2005. This oil would be converted to biodiesel.
4. Care and Repair Initiative: The Housing Authority operates a number of schemes aimed at restoring and repairing buildings (such as restoration of balconies and repairs to external doors and apertures). These schemes are aimed at individuals requiring assistance and whose capital and income falls below certain thresholds.
5. Financing Scheme for environmentally related investment by industry: Bank of Valletta with Malta Federation of Industry (FOI) launched the BOV Environment Finance Package for Industry to support FOI members in the manufacturing and services sectors to conform to legislation in the areas of energy saving, recycling, health and safety. Loans are up to MTL50,000. The Malta Enterprise Loan Guarantee Scheme may be used to secure up to 50% of the loan requirement at an interest rate of 1.75% over the Bank’s base rate. As for Cash Secured facilities, an interest rate of 1% over the base rate will apply. With all other security, it will be 2.25%-2.75% over the base rate. For unsecured loans it will be 3.5%-4.5% over the base rate. A moratorium period of up to 12 months may be arranged whereas an initial minimum contribution of 20% will be required.
6. Free licence on battery operated mopeds is an environmentally motivated subsidy that offers zero registration tax and promotes battery operated mopeds.
7. Free registration tax on all battery powered electric vehicle is an environmentally motivated subsidy that offers zero registration tax.
8. Reduced import duty on environmentally friendly goods is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to encourage the consumption of recyclable goods. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, waste management, land contamination. The scheme is available for the following products: consumption-reducing electricity bulbs, degradable refuse bags, recycled paper and bleach free paper and shopping bags manufactured from recycled paper and carton.
9. Reduced registration tax on buses: The Government charges reduced vehicle registration taxes on buses as follows: 1)6% for scheduled buses; 2)24% for unscheduled buses.
10. Refund on energy efficient white goods is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to encourage the use of household appliances for domestic use certified as being energy efficient. The eligible applicants may apply for a grant of 20% on the purchase of the household appliance for domestic use, subject to a maximum grant. The scheme applies to domestic appliances including washing machines, tumble dryers, fridges, freezers and air conditioners purchased from Malta from registered sellers on or after the effective date, and which appliance is certified as having a minimum energy efficiency class.
11. Refund on Photovoltaics: 25% refund with Lm500 limit. In the Budget speech for 2006 Government announced a scheme for the purchase of photovoltaic equipment by households whereby 25%, subject to a maximum of Lm500, of the expenditure incurred in the purchase of photovoltaic technology is refunded. Moreover, Enemalta does not charge the normal Lm20 meter installation fee necessary for the operation of the photovoltaics technology.
12. Refund on the purchase of solar water heaters, wind energy and roof insulation for private homes: 25% refund with Lm100 limit. In 2005, Government announced a scheme which allowed for a refund of 15.25% subject to a maximum of Lm50 on the expenditure made on the purchase of solar heaters for domestic use. In 2006, Government increased the refund limit to 25% subject to a maximum refund of Lm100. This scheme has also been extended to include wind energy as well as roof insulation for private homes. Enemalta also offers a refund on installation of electricity mains, which usually costs Lm70, to new households which install a solar water heater. In the first 3 months to March 2005 the total number applications for refunds totalled 124. In 2005 Government paid refunds amounting to Lm17,647 on the purchase of solar water heaters. During the first three months of 2006, the total refunds paid amounted to circa Lm5,000.
13. Sale of excess energy from photovoltaic is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of to stimulate photovoltaic energy in households.
14. Subsidy for acquisition of new buses: Government offers the possibility of subsidising the purchase of new buses to replace older buses. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change.
15. Subsidy on LPG: to promote the use of LPG. LPG is currently imported and distributed by Enemalta and it is mostly used for home heating and/or cooking. Despite the fact that LPG may be considered as a cleaner fuel compared to others, subsidising is limited due to: a) Basis of intervention already shaky on state aid grounds; b)currently in the process of liberalisation which makes it even more difficult to intervene. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change.
16. Subsidy on the purchase of electric vehicles is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to devise a new subsidy that goes beyond zero registration tax. Refund limit on the purchase of electric vehicles. 2001: the registration tax on battery operated vehicles was reduced from a rate which ranged between 50% and 75% to 16.5% of the value of the car. Furthermore, the registration tax on battery operated motor cycles was reduced from a rate which ranged between 28% and 42% to 6.5%. Revision 2003: up to 2007 all electric vehicles are given a free entry permit (which currently costs Lm20 per annum) to Valletta. (No longer applicable on account of the Park and Ride Scheme operated in Valletta). Revision 2005: Government introduced a further measure on electric cars whereby an amount equivalent to 15.25% of the car’s value up to a maximum of Lm500 will be refunded upon purchase of an electric vehicle. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and climate change.
17. Subsidy to public transport operators is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote public transport. Currently the Government subsidies public transport fares through a subsidy payable to the Public Transport Authority (“PTA”). This subsidy is intended to compensate for the losses made by the PTA in the provision of this public service at prices which are controlled by Government. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, land management and climate change.
18. VAT refund on property improvement is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to incentivise people to improve vacant property in Valletta, Floriana and the Cottonera area, through refund of the VAT payment on costs for improving the property. The domain addressed by the instrument is land management.
19. EU Emissions Trading Scheme
20. Tradable permits for fishermen to promote sustainable fishing.Fishermen must have a separate licence for catching tuna and dolphin fish during the fishing seasons. Currently no more fishing licences are being issued. These licences are trading as high as MTL40,000.
The current environmental policy and legislation framework of Moldova is determined in more than one hundred and fifty documents, including national concepts, strategies, action plans, legal and normative acts. The active participation of the country in international multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) contributed to varying degrees to the formulation of environmental policy and the legal framework. At the same time, specific efforts have been made in recent years to draft new legal acts aimed at alignment with EU legislation requirements. Another impetus to the integration of environmental considerations in national development policies is played by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Environmental policy and the development of its legal framework is also influenced by national reform processes undertaken in Moldova, such as public administration reform and the reform of the regulatory framework for entrepreneurial activity.
The December 2007 Moldovan National Development Strategy (NDS) 2008-2011 has, to date, been the main internal medium-term strategic planning paper, which defines the development objectives of Moldova until 2011 and identifies the priority measures and actions to achieve these objectives. The key objective of the Strategy is to ensure a better quality of people’s lives by strengthening the foundation for strong, sustainable and inclusive economic growth. In regard to the Environment, the NDS has a particular focus on the development and modernisation of environmental infrastructure, prevention of environmental pollution and the efficient use of natural resources in the light of MDG’s implementation and regional development.
Under the October 2009 Government Programme 2009 to 2013, there is now a distinct focus on a comprehensive economic recovery programme15 centred on strengthening confidence in the ability of state institutions to manage the current crisis via, inter alia, prudent fiscal policies and an efficient and stable cooperation with international financial institutions and Moldova’s development partners. In regard to Environment, the Programme emphasises the development of the environmental legal framework, environmental impacts reduction, raising public awareness on environmental matters and increasing protection against natural disasters. In regard to the period from 2011 to 2015, it is understood that the country will undertake efforts towards further development of the environmental legal and institutional framework in various areas including: the improvement of waste and chemicals management, the development of the water supply and sanitation systems, the promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
The strategic policy framework in the sector of Environment is established by a range of policy documents:
“Rethink Moldova” — a strategic document, which summarises the Government’s comprehensive vision of the country’s short to medium-term priorities and highlights financing needs in support of reforms, including in water supply and sanitation in rural areas.
The 2005 National Programme “Moldovan Village” 2005-2015 puts the emphasis on sustainable rural development by setting inter alia a range of priority development objectives in the field of environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources.
The National Programme to ensure environmental security 2007-2015 aims to ensure the environmental security of the state by reducing environmental risks, preventing negative impacts on environment and health, including in a trans-boundary context, and improving the legal and institutional framework.
The 2001 Concept of environmental policy sets up the guiding framework for the development of environmental policy and legal acts in the sector of Environment.
As regards Environmental Governance, a draft Action Plan on the implementation of the Aarhus Convention in the Republic of Moldova is under development.
The aspect of Air Quality is addressed in the following additional policy documents:
l 2001 Programme for the reduction of atmospheric air pollution from vehicles,
l 2003 National Programme on Energy Conservation 2003-2010,
l 2007 Energy Strategy until 2020,
l 2010 Action Plan on road traffic safety improvement.
The policy framework on Water Quality and Water Resources Management is established by:
l the 2000 Scheme for the protection of settlements against floods in Moldova,
l the 2003 Concept on national policy on water resources,
l the 2005 Water supply and sanitation programme for the settlements of the Republic of Moldova until 2015, and
l the 2007 Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy 2008-2025.
Moreover, a draft National Strategy on water resources development is under preparation and a Strategy for flood risk management is envisaged to be developed in 2011.
The Management of Waste is addressed in the following additional policy documents:
l the 2000 National Programme of production and household waste recovery 2000-2010, and
l the 2007 Concept of settlements sanitation in Moldova.
A draft National Waste Management Strategy during 2011 — 2020 is under development and will, once adopted, replace the 2000 National Programme.
The main policy document on Nature Protection is the 2001 Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. Other nature protection-related policy documents are:
l the 2000 National Strategy to Combat Desertification,
l the 2001 Strategy on sustainable development of the forestry sector and the 2003 Action Plan for its implementation during 2003-2020 and
l the 2003 State Programme on soil improvement and soil fertility increase during 2003-2010.
The policy documents addressing Chemicals include the 2004 National Strategy to reduce and eliminate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the National Plan for the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on POPs until 2010 as well as the 1999 National Programme for the gradual phase-out of ozone depleting substances. In addition, a Draft National Programme on the sound management of chemicals until 2020 is under development and the country is involved in the development of a Management Plan to phase-out the release of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).
The issue of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) is tackled in the 2000 National Concept on ecological agriculture, production and marketing of ecological and GMO-free food, the 2001 Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan and the 2009 Joint Action Plan on biosafety in the Republic of Moldova 2009-2015.
A series of environmental protection strategies on water, waste and waste-water were adopted in 2004 and 2005, which are based on priorities identified by municipal authorities: the National Waste Management Policy, the National Waste Management Strategy, the Solid Waste Strategic Master Plan, the Strategic Master Plan for Sewerage and Treatment of Waste-water for the Montenegrin Coast and Cetinje Municipality, and the Strategic Master Plan for Sewerage and Treatment of Waste-water for Central and Northern Montenegro. They aim to create the conditions and build proper infrastructure for municipal waste and waste-water treatment that are in compliance with EU requirements.
Other strategic documents were adopted by end of 2007; for example: the Environmental Acquis Strategy, the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the National Spatial Plan. For the first time a SEA pilot was conducted to assess the impact of the National Spatial Plan; and a pilot project supported by the Netherlands and the World Bank has been launched to test the procedure prescribed in the Law on Strategic Environmental Assessment even before the law enters into force.
Other important strategic documents with environmentally-related components are:
l The 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy, which defines the priority measures required to tackle the main environmental challenges in the context of poverty reduction, including prevention of human health risks caused by environmental pollution and the further improvement of environmental management;
l The 2005 Energy Efficiency Strategy, which defines activities that relevant institutions have to undertake in support of establishing a system of efficient energy use; for example through the promotion of energy saving schemes, minimization of environmental impacts of energy use and production, and promotion of renewable energy sources;
l The 2006 Strategy for Development of Food Production and Rural Areas aims to introduce sustainable development principles into Montenegrin agriculture through, among other methods, the introduction of the food brand “Made in Montenegro”;
l The 2006 Strategic Framework for Development of Sustainable Tourism in Northern and Central Montenegro;
l The 2006 Tourism Development Strategy for the period until 2020;
l The 2006 Administrative Capacity Building Action Plan for Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement;
l The 2006 Functional Analysis of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning;
l The 2005 National Diagnostic Analysis (NDA) on the Sea Pollution from Land-based Sources;
l The 2005 National Action Plan (NAP) for Montenegrin Coast for Preventing Sea Pollution from Land-based Sources;
l The 2004 National Report on Biodiversity Condition in the Coastal and Sea Area of Montenegro;
l The 2004 Communication Strategy for Informing the Public on Montenegro’s EU Association Process;
l The 2006 Foreign Direct Investment Incentives Strategy of Montenegro; and
l The 2007 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Capacity Development Strategy for Montenegro.
The National Strategy for Sustainable Development defines the main principles of sustainable development tailored to the conditions of Montenegro. Main emphasis is given to:
l Integration of environmental concerns into development policies;
l Internalization of environmental costs through the implementation of the polluter- and user-pays principles;
l Participation of all stakeholders in decisionmaking, consultations, dialogue and partnership;
l Respecting the precautionary principle, and the principle of subsidiarity and interdependency between local and global levels, and
l Access to the services and financial resources necessary to meet basic needs.
The general objectives and specific goals for each of the three pillars of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) are identified. Specific chapters are devoted to the implementation, monitoring, and financing of the NSSD. The Strategy was approved by the Government at the end of March 2007.
The 1996 Law on Environment lays down the main principles for environmental protection, such as polluter- and user-pays principles, environmental impact assessment and data transparency. Few bylaws have been developed to implement these principles. The Law on Environment requires an EIA for any project that may have adverse effects on the environment. Regulations on Environmental Impact Assessment prescribe: activities subject to EIA, preliminary assessment procedures, public participation in decision-making, the procedure for the evaluation and verification of EIA and the criteria for assessment reports.
Since 2002, environmental legislation has developed significantly. The country’s overarching priority, accession to the EU, is the main driving force that explains this progress. The following laws, harmonized with the relevant EU directives, were adopted in 2005 and entered into force in 2008: Law on Environmental Impact Assessment, Law on Strategic Environmental Assessment, Law on Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, Law on Waste Management and Law on Environmental Noise.
The 2005 Law on Environmental Impact Assessment defines the complete EIA procedure, from screening to approval, including public participation and transboundary effects. Under the EIA, potential or indirect impacts of a planned project on human life and health, flora and fauna, land, water, air, climate, landscape, material resources and cultural heritage (including relevant interactions among these factors) should be identified, described and assessed. EIAs shall be carried out for projects on industry, mining, energy production, transport, tourism, agriculture, forestry, water management and utilities, and for all the projects that are planned in protected natural zones and within the protected surroundings of national monuments. The Law should strengthen public participation.
Similarly to the EIA Law, the 2005 Law on Strategic Environmental Assessment defines the complete SEA procedure, from screening to approval, including public participation and transboundary effects. Plans and programmes are subject to a mandatory SEA if they are prepared for sectors specified in the Law and/or if they set the framework for future development projects that are subject to the EIA and could affect protected areas, natural habitats and preservation of wildlife plant and animal species. These specified sectors are agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, transport, waste management, water management, regional development, tourism, town and country planning or land use, and industry including mining.
The 2005 Law on Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC) regulates environmental pollution prevention and control by issuing integrated permits for installations and activities that may have a negative impact on human health, the environment or material resources. It lays down measures designed to prevent or to reduce emissions in the air, water and land from the activities to be defined by sub-regulations, including measures concerning waste, efficient energy consumption, reduction of noise and vibrations, use of raw materials, prevention of accidents, and risk assessment. The integrated permitting system is based on the concept of best available techniques (BAT).
The 2005 Law on Waste Management establishes the basic legal framework and conditions created for the implementation of the National Strategic Master Plan for Waste Management. The Law prescribes the requirements for the elaboration of waste management plans; defines competences, responsibilities and obligations related to waste management; and sets out principles for a) managing special types of waste, b) incineration, disposal and storage of waste, c) monitoring, and d) penalization.
The Law on Environmental Noise regulates noise emissions and their impact, and establishes measures to reduce the harmful effect of noise on human health.
Other laws under development or already under inter-ministerial consultation are:
l Amendments to the Law on Environment, which includes provisions for establishing the Environmental Protection Agency
l Amendment to the Law on National Parks 24 Part I: Policy-making, planning and implementation
l Law on Air Quality
l Law on Chemicals
l Law on the Establishment of an Environmental Fund
l Law on Nature Protection
l Law on Proclaiming Prokletije Mountain as a National Park
l Law on Protection from Ionizing Radiation and Radiation Safety
1. Deposit-refund system for glass and plastic bottles with the purpose to limit waste disposal. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
2. Deposit-refund system for lead-acid accumulators with the purpose of strengthening management of hazardous waste. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, land contamination and waste management.
3. Deposit-refund system for toxic chemicals packages with the purpose of strengthening management of hazardous waste. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, land contamination and waste management.
4. Compensation / liability payment for conservation is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to compensate for damage caused by wild species. The domain addressed by the instrument is natural resource management. There are 2 sub-schemes:
- Compensation/liability payment for conservation - hunting species: compensation, liability payment for losses in crops and agriculture caused by hunting species: boars, elks, deers, roe deers, fallow deers.
- Compensation/liability payment for conservation - protected species: Compensation/liability payments for damage caused by protected species: bisons, lynxes, beavers, bears, wolves. Compensation covers losses in: crops, lifestock, apiary, forestry and aquaculture. Paid as grants by the State Treasury from budgets of voivodships or bugets of National Parks.
5. Compensation payment for converting agricultural land into forests is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to enlarge forest resources and to manage properly poor quality soil (also devastated) according to the State Forestry Policy. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change and natural resource management.
6. Grants and soft loans from debt for environment swap scheme - ECOFUND foundation is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of supporting environmental projects responding to global environmental objectives like mitigation of climate change and reduction of transboundary air pollution. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management and natural resource management.
7. Rationalisation of heat consumption in municipal/households sector is environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose of modernisation of the existing building resources in the range of energy efficiency, GHG emissions reduction. The domains addressed by the instrument are climate change and energy efficiency.
8. Subsidies from environmental funds is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to support implementation of the National Environmental Policy. There are 2 sub-schemes:
- Debt write-off from environmental funds: Only in case of raised charges, in the way of administrative decision after meeting criteria related to removal of causes of raising charges level .
- Grants from environmental funds: Grants and remission of part of loan after payment of given credit % and reaching environmental goals.
- Soft loans from environmental funds: 1. Preferential interest rate: Loans granted by environmental funds or credits granted by commercial banks from national fund resources (subsidies to bank credit interest), 2. Possibility of remissions after repayment of a given % of the credit.
9. Tradable permits system for Green House Gases & other pollutants: Reduction of GHGs according to the commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change and energy efficiency.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l The National Program for Augmentation of Forest Cover highlights the importance of nature protection and landscape management as well as increasing the biodiversity resources in the afforesting work. The augmentation of forest cover is the priority of the Forest Policy and is particularly important due to the changes in the ecosystems already observed and multi-purpose role of forests.
l In the National Strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and Action Plan for 2007-2013 the main goals are the preservation of the riches of biodiversity at local, national and global levels and ensuring the possibilities for the development of all the levels of its organisation (within species, between species and at the higher-than-species level), while taking into account the needs of Poland’s socio-economic development and the need to ensure the appropriate conditions of life and development for its society.
l The Draft National Strategy for Management of Water Resources 2030 was prepared for the Minister of Environment in 2010. The strategic goal of implementing an integrated water management system is to provide the population with access to clean and healthy water, and reduce the risks related to floods and droughts. This is to be achieved together with ensuring good quality of water resources and related ecosystems, as well as meeting water needs of the economy.
l Fishing resources efficiency will be included in the Strategy for the development of the agriculture and fisheries and the Maritime Policy of the Republic of Poland until 2020, which are currently under preparation. Maritime Policy has been prepared in order to fulfill Polish obligation defined in the EU Commission document “Integrated maritime policy of the European Union (COM (2007) 575)” and conclusions of the European Council adopted at the meeting in Lisbon on 14 December 2007. Maritime Policy will define the main aims of the sustainable management of fish resources until 2020.
l The Project of Sustainable Development of Rural Areas, Agriculture and Fishery Strategy describes the long-term vision for the development of rural areas including the development of agriculture products base and maintaining native genetic variety of vegetable and animal production. Among the priorities there are the biodiversity as well as water quality and resources protection.
l The strategy for energy security and environment (being elaborated) covers all major issues important for both matters, such as energy efficiency, enhanced security of fuels and energy supplies, development of the renewable energy sources, development of competitive fuel and energy markets, efficient natural resources management, sustainable management of geological resources, water management, multifunctional forest management, biodiversity management, waste management, as well as development of services and products complying with the high requirements for environmental protection.
l In the Energy Policy of Poland until 2030 and The National Environmental Policy for 2009-2012 and its 2016 outlook there are provisions on rational use of energy resources and geological resources management. Dedicated sections deal with energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources (RES). RES is also addressed in the National Action Plan for Renewables, as a direction for the development of the energy sector. In addition, energy efficiency is tackled in the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP 2007).
l In the field of energy efficiency in the building sector, since 2009 there is in Poland Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). EPC is the energy efficiency rating of a property, precisely a building. EPC aims to promote rational and sustainable utilization of energy in buildings and to improve energy efficiency in buildings.
l The Draft Strategy for Innovation and Efficiency of the Economy is focused on the cooperation improvement and creating good conditions for enterprise development, innovation and efficient management of human, financial, material and natural resources.
l In the field of better products the Strategy of Implementation of Integrated Product Policies in Poland and the Executive Programme for Implementation of an Integrated Product Policy in Poland were adopted by the Ministry of Environment in 2005. The National Environmental Policy in force also addresses the issue of eco-friendly products. Regarding eco-labelling in Poland, the EU Eco-label and national eco-label are in place. In order to ensure the cohesion of integrated product policy, the Ministry of Economy is responsible for integrated product policy in Poland.
l The Transport Development Strategy, which is nearing completion, includes the development of the road, rail, air, marine and inland-water transport in order to modernize it, make it more efficient and more environment-friendly. The strategy includes provisions for economic effectiveness and infrastructure organization improvement through novel technical solutions, ICT, intermodal transport and training professional staff.
l The 2014 National Waste Management Plan adopted in December 2010 covers full range of tasks required to provide for integrated waste management throughout the national territory in a manner ensuring protection of the environment, with regard to both present and future economic opportunities and circumstances, and the technical development level of existing infrastructure. Main objectives of the Plan are reducing the use of resources and increasing the recovery share, by favouring the practical application of the waste hierarchy, from which waste prevention should be the first priority of waste management, and that re-use and material recycling should be preferred to energy recovery from waste, where and insofar as they are the best ecological options.
1. Deposit refund for glass bottles with the purpose of waste minimisation, rational use of raw materials. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
2. Deposit-refund system for glass with the purpose of waste prevention and resource conservation. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
Projects and programs financed through the Romanian Environment Fund Administration are targeting:
l energy efficiency by financing renewable energy projects – the program ‘Increasing the energy production from renewable sources’;
l waste management by financing companies and regional administrations;
l The ‘Jalopy’ program, which consists of coupons (worth about 890 EUR a piece) received by individuals or legal persons for every used car (older than 10 years) sent to recycling centres. In 2011 the possibility of acquiring new hybrid or electrical cars was introduced, even if not taking part in the ‘Jalopy’ Program; any private or legal person (except companies, be it private or state owned) will benefit of a 10% discount (but not more than 1,800 EUR) on the sale price of a hybrid car and up to 20% discount (but not more than 3,700 EUR) on the sale price of an electrical car.
l financing, with up to 95% of the eligible costs, new sewage systems for local administrations, in order to protect water sources;
l financing up to 100% of the eligible costs for public local administrations investing in creating or extending parks and forests,
l the ‘Green House’ Program promotes the use of heating systems based on alternative energy. The programme will finance replacing or supplementing traditional heating system with installations using solar, wood waste and geothermal energy sources. The purpose of this program is to improve air quality and energy efficiency by reducing water and soil pollution caused by burning wood and fossil fuels for heating and hot water. This program addresses the public sector as well
l The Romanian Ministry of Development and Housing is working in collaboration with the local government authorities in order to promote the ‘Thermal Rehabilitation Program’ for housing blocks. The beneficiaries of this program are the owners associations aiming to increase energy performance of residential buildings.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l During the period 2004 – 2010, Romania had a Mining Industry Strategy that was approved by Government Decision 615/2004. Currently, for the next period (2010 – 2020) Romania elaborated a mining draft strategy, which for the moment is under approval procedure on the environmental report for the mining strategy 2010 – 2020 being followed by Government’s approval.
l Romania’s Biomass Master Plan (2010): Romania has the opportunity to make a major step towards effective use of biomass. This measure will contribute to achieve the provisions of the Directive 2009/28/EC on the use of renewable sources. Also, the Biomass Master Plan will help to reduce CO2 emissions in Romania, will increase the efficiency of various industries and will create new opportunities for national and international private companies.
l The National Action Plan for Energy from Renewable Sources (2010) is laying down the national and sectoral goals for energy efficiency, measures to increase the availability of biomass, taking into account other biomass users (based on agriculture and forestry) etc.
l Romania’s National Strategy for Energy Efficiency establishes the goals and the evaluation of the potential of increasing energy efficiency in various sectors. The main goal of the strategy is to identify the possibilities and the means of increasing energy efficiency alongside the energy cycle. In this context, promoting energy efficiency aims to reduce energy consumption at the final consumer, having effects at the energy production level and at the utilization of the primary energy resources.
l The policy and the Strategy for Forest Sector Development in Romania (2001 - 2010) have as objective to increase the forest sector contribution for raising the quality of life, based on sustainable forest management. Also, there are mentioned as strategic objective the necessity of upgrading the institutional framework in order to achieve a uniform and sustained implementation of the forest sector development. Currently, the National Plan to Combat Illegal Logging is placed on public consultation in order to involve the civil society and NGOs in combating illegal activities in forestry and wildlife.
l The National Action Plan for environmental public procurement (2008 - 2013) is presenting the general and legislative framework establishing the criteria for green procurement for different categories of products and services. Furthermore, this plan highlights the necessity to develop ecological criteria in order to promote an effective public procurement in Romania.
l Starting in 2007, Romania implemented in her national legislation the Eco-Design Directive that established the ecological design criteria for the energy consuming products.
l The Action Plan for water protection against nitrates pollution from agriculture sources
l The Good agricultural and environmental conditions (GAEC): should be met by the farmers that are applying for direct payments from EU funds or from the national budget and other financial support. This also applies to the following directions: soil erosion, maintaining the optimal content of organic matter in soil, maintain soil structure, ensuring a minimum level of maintenance of agricultural land protection, and water management.
l The National Strategy for Drought Mitigation, Prevention and Combating of Land Degradation and Desertification on short, medium and long term includes forecasts, indicators for monitoring the effects of drought, land degradation and desertification phenomenon in Romania, in the context of climate change.
The key environmental legislation comprises the:
l Federal law on environmental protection.
l Federal law on air protection.
l Water Code.
l Forestry Code.
l Land Code.
l Federal law on waste management.
l Federal law on sanitary protection.
l Federal law on state environmental review.
In 2005, the environmental legal framework in Russia comprised more than 30 federal laws as compared to only six laws/codes that existed in the early 1990s. Furthermore, environmental requirements are scattered through hundreds of secondary legal acts. Besides domestic legislation, many international legal acts have been ratified. There are many other sources of environmental law, for instance judicial practice and judicial precedent. As a consequence, it is not always clear which norms apply in a specific case thus creating confusion for regulators and regulatees alike.
1. Deposit refund system for glass bottles with the purpose of waste minimization through reuse of glass bottles. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
2. Accelerated depreciation of fixed assets used for environmental improvements is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to provide incentives for investments in cleaner technologies and environmentally friendly activities. The domains addressed by the instrument are: water pollution, air pollution, land contamination, noise, natural resource management, waste management and energy efficiency. Enterprises are allowed to depreciate fixed assets used for environmental improvements at rates which are up to 25% higher that the regular ones. Accelerated depreciation is approved in case fixed assets are used for pollution prevention (air, water, soil), noise mitigation, energy savings, reforestation, collection and reuse of wastes (as raw materials or fuels).
Environmental legislation in Serbia consists of a large number of laws and regulations – more than 100. Among other areas, these laws cover:
l planning and construction
l geological surveys
l water, soil and forest protection
l flora and fauna
l national parks
l waste management
l safety of chemical production and trades in the market
l trade and transport of explosive and hazardous materials
l protection against ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
l nuclear safety.
The majority of these laws are harmonized with EU legislation. For example, in 2009 alone, the National Assembly adopted a package of 14 laws within the competence of the Ministry of Environment and Social Planning that were harmonized with EU legislation.
1. Deposit payments for motor vehicles to motivate vehicle owners to forward out-aged vehicles for proper (environmentally friendly) treatment and to gather resources for their disposal. The difference between total deposit payments and total refund payments are used to cover the costs of vehicles disposal and also administrative costs (Recycling Fund operations). The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
2. Environmental Grant Scheme is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to improve the state of environment by supporting small environmental projects. The domains addressed by the instrument are: water pollution, air pollution and waste management. EGS grant can cover up to 40% of total eligible costs of the project when the applicant belongs to the public sector, and up to 20% if the applicant falls into the private sector. The activities supported by this instrument are investment in physical capital and operation of public treatment facilities.
3. Financing of ISPA projects is an environmentally motivated subsidy meant to achieve compliance with EU Directives concerning environment protection through Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA) projects. The domains addressed by the instrument are: water pollution, air pollution and waste management. There are 2 sub-schemes:
- Co-financing of ISPA projects by means of State budget subsidies: ISPA projects are co-financed from the State budget by amount of 12,5-25% of their total eligible costs. The activities supported by this instrument are investment in physical capital and operation of public treatment facilities.
- Grants from the ISPA fund: can cover up to 75% of total eligible costs of the project. The activities supported by this instrument are investment in physical capital and operation of public treatment facilities.
4. Subsidies for environmental purposes is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to support environmental investments, which would be otherwise impossible or very difficult to proceed. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, noise, ozone layer protection, energy efficiency, transport and land management. There are 2 sub-schemes:
- Non-returnable subsidies: The project has to be in compliance with strategy documents concerning environment protection and spatial development with emphasis on requisites of the EU approximation process. The priority is given to environmental investments which are already under construction. The activities supported by this instrument are research and development, investment in physical capital, energy saving, operation of public treatment facilities, operation of treatment facilities in plants, clean-up of earlier pollution, market penetration of clean products and training of employees.
- Remunerative loans (soft loans): The project has to be in compliance with strategy documents concerning environment protection and spatial development with emphasis on requisites of EU approximation process. The priority is given to environmental investments which are already under construction. The activities supported by this instrument are research and development, investment in physical capital, energy saving, operation of public treatment facilities, operation of treatment facilities in plants, clean-up of earlier pollution, market penetration of clean products and training of employees.
5. Eco-labelling scheme is a voluntary approach instrument with the purpose to improve the environmental quality of products. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, noise, ozone layer protection, energy efficiency, transport and land management. There are several sub-schemes for this instrument, depending on the product type: 100% cotton bed linen, anti-frost agents, biodegradable plastics wrapping materials, electric household washing machines, electric sources of light, heating boilers for gaseous fuels with atmospheric burner, heating boilers for gaseous fuels with pressured burner, large-sized wood boards, laundry detergents for textiles, liquid cleaning detergents, paper tissues made of recycled fibres, powdery limestone, radial tyres for passenger vehicles, refrigerators and freezers for households, steel enamel bath and shower stalls, toilet paper from 100% recycled fibres, water soluble adhesives and binders, water soluble coatings,
6. Environmental Management Systems according to ISO 14000 to continually improve management of environmental problems. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, climate change, land contamination, waste management, natural resource management, noise, ozone layer protection, energy efficiency, transport and land management.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l In April 2007 the Slovak government approved the Strategy for a Higher Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources in the Slovak Republic, which contains targets for the use of renewable energy sources to be achieved in electricity and heat generation by 2010 and 2015. These targets have been set based on the potential of individual energy sources, current utilization levels and their expected use in the future.
l The Biomass Action Plan for 2008 – 2013 (2008). The goals of the plan clearly highlight the importance of biomass availability and the real possibilities of Slovakia, the problems related to the practical use of biomass and the implementation of the commitments of Slovakia in the field of RES.
l In October 2010 the Slovak government prepared the National Renewable Energy Action Plan in which national targets for share of RES in a transport sector and energy sector in 2020 are specified.
l The Ministry of Economy and Construction subsidizes biomass boilers and solar panels for households from the central government budget. Installation must meet specified technical parameters.
l Energy Security Strategy of the SR (2008) aimed to achieve competitive power engineering, ensuring safe, reliable and effective supply of all energy forms at reasonable prices taking into account consumer protection, protection of environment, security of supply and technical safety.
l In 2007 was approved The Concept of Energy Efficiency by 2016. A main goal of the concept is reduce energy intensiveness to the average EU -15 level, to create a motivational background as well as to support sustainable resolutions and introducing progress innovation and energy efficient technologies to all sectors of the Slovakian economy.
l The aim of the Strategy of the state housing policy until 2015 is to develop a functional and regularly updated register of the existing housing stock, to adopt legal amendments of the current framework conditions of supply of energy for households, especially in terms of price and their breakdown in order to protect the end-users, to adopt and implement measures to reduce energy consumption in buildings construction, heating systems, hot water and to increase the utilization of non-traditional sources and RES.
l Strategy of the energy efficiency in buildings until 2010 with outlook up to 2020 was adopted in June 2008 (Resolution of the Government of the Slovak republic No. 384 of 11 June 2008). The Strategy establishes the necessary institutional, technical and incentive framework for improving energy efficiency in buildings.
l In May 2011 the second Energy Efficiency Action Plan for 2011 – 2013 was adopted and is evaluating the 1st plan, quantifying intermediate targets by the year 2013, defining the existing as well as new measures of energy efficiency and financial and legal tools for achieving the national and European energy saving targets up to the Strategy Europe 2020 like a strong driver in this field. This plan identifies the public sector and buildings as one of the key sectors in meeting defined targets.
l Operational Programme Transport 2007 – 2013 (2007) represents a programme document of the Slovak Republic for drawing on the EU funds in the transport sector for the years 2007 to 2013.
l Programme of supporting Intelligent Transport Systems development (National system of transport information) – 2008, creates clear benefits in terms of transport efficiency, sustainability, safety and security, whilst contributing to the EU Internal Market and competitiveness objectives.
l Extend public passenger transport instead of individual transport (2009). In the scope of passenger transport, the government support the extension of public passenger transport instead of individual transport.
l Waste management Programme for 2006-2010 is the basic strategic plan for waste management. It includes targets for the disposal and recovery of waste according to waste categorisation as well as goals for selected waste flows: used tires, paper waste, glass waste, plastics waste, biodegradable waste, textile waste, construction waste, packaging waste. The new WMP for 2010 - 2014 is under preparation. The proposal of new Waste act is also under preparation and will include fundamental changes in hierarchy of waste management.
l Conception of Agriculture and Forestry development 2007-2013: part Forestry. This prioritises: supporting the development of green technologies, supporting the use of wood for energy purposes, support of ecological forest management, improving protective functions of forests - protection of soil and water resources, maintaining and improving forest condition, ensuring the non-productive functions of forests.
l National Forest Programme of the Slovak Republic has the strategic goal to achieve ecological forest management. The main priorities are to support nature friendly forest management, support the development and use of environmentally friendly technologies and techniques, support the conservation, improvement and enhancement of biodiversity and support the use of forest biomass for energy purposes.
l River Basin Management Plan of the Slovak Republic, describes the formation process and characterization of river basin areas, results of impacts of human activities on water status, evaluation of status of waters, measures of achievement of the WFD objectives, which are included in the programme of measures.
l Development of purposes, priorities and goals of the national development strategy for sustainable development in industrial policy. One of the main goals of the national development strategy for sustainable development in industrial policy is to increase effectiveness of using material and energy sources. The Strategy for SD in industrial policy contains, for example, a list of programmes supporting sustainable development in industry, and the development and application of environmental technologies in industry. (2004 – 2013 – actual industrial policy).
l Innovation strategy in the manufacturing sector. Innovation strategy in manufacturing includes a set of proposals for solution innovation in manufacture. There are for example development of new quality of steel for applications enabling decreasing steel stocks in industrial and other applications. (2007)
l Action Plan for Energy Effectiveness for 2008 – 2010 (2007). Increase of total energy efficiency in industry.
l Raw materials policy (2004), ensures effective exploration and use of the minerals meeting all criteria of sustainable development.
l National action plan for green public procurement for the years 2007 – 2010. The NAP on GPP proposes priorities, objectives and activities to achieve the implementation of environmentally friendly products, technologies and Environmental Management Systems in public procurement under the requirements of the European Commission. The preparing of the second National action plan for green public procurement for the years 2011 – 2015 is planned.
1. Deposit refund system for beverage containers is an instrument aimed at waste minimisation. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management. There are 43 sub-schemes for this instrument, depending on the container type.
2. ECO FUND - Slovenian Environmental Public Fund is an environmentally motivated subsidy that encourages the development of environmental protection by giving loans and guarantees for environmental investments and other forms of assistance. The Fund encourages investments that are consistent with the National Environmental Action Plan and European Union environmental policy. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution, air pollution, waste management, noise, energy efficiency and transport. The principal activity of the Fund is to offer favourable credit environment of different investments at interest rates below market. The activities supported by this instrument are investment in physical capital, energy saving, operation of public treatment facilities, operation of treatment facilities in plants, clean-up of earlier pollution, market penetration of clean products.
3. Subsidies for municipal environmental infrastructure are environmentally motivated subsidies for the improvement of municipal infrastructure for waste water, drinking water supply and waste management. The domains addressed by the instrument are water pollution and waste management. There are 3 sub-schemes:
- Grants for municipal wastewater infrastructure: Subsidies are provided by the Ministry of Environmnet and Spatial Planning and the Governmental Office of Local Self-Government and Regional Policy. Their purpose is to ensure adequate infrastructure for the collection and treatment of urban wastewater in areas that in the national programme are regarded as those that need to be equipped with the sewage system in line with the European directives regulating the collection and treatment of urban waste water and pre-accession treaty and to reduce environmental impact (water, soil).
- Grants for waste management infrastructure: construction of regional centres for waste management where separation and sorting of various sorts of waste, preliminary waste processing, waste disposal, purification of landfill leachate, including sludge management, construction of several collection centres for separate waste collection.
- Grants for water supply infrastructure: Subsidies are devided by Ministry of Environmnet and Spatial Planning and Governmental Office of Local Self-Government and Regional Policy. Their purposes are to: ensure adequate infrastructure for drinking water supply, preserve natural sources and ecosystems, improve the quality of ground water as drinking water source, ensure reserve water sources for other smaller systems (supplying from 49,000 to 10,000 inhabitants), reduce water losses with bigger systems (if the loss exceeds 30%), modernisation of water supply systems with more than 10,000 inhabitants.
4. Subsidies for renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are financial incentives for renewable energy sources and energy efficiency projects (for households and companies). The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution, climate change, land contamination, natural resource management and energy efficiency. There are 3 sub-schemes:
- Subsidies for electricity production from renewable energy sources: subsidies granted for electricity produced from power plants based on wooden biomass, wind power plants, solar power plants, municipal waste power plants.
- Subsidies for housing energy efficiency improvements for households: subsidies are granted for solar energy heating systems, low-energy/passive houses, biomas heating systems, energy-efficiency of buildings, new wooden windows purchases.
- Subsidies for renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements: subsidies for electricity production from renewable energy sources, subsidies for biomas for heating, subsidies for renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures.
5. Emission allowances permit trade system is a trdable permits system with the aim to reduce CO2 emissions. The domain addressed by the instrument is climate change.
Sector-specific strategies and action plans:
l National Forest Programme (2007): Wood is the most important renewable material in Slovenia. Although the general benefits of forests are the most important, their economic importance is far from negligible. By National Forest Programme it is possible to cut more wood in Slovenian forests and at the same time provide their sustainable preservation and development.
l Rural Development Programme of the Republic of Slovenia 2007-2013: In the need to improve the competitiveness of all three sectors of the primary production, i.e. agriculture, food industry and forestry, special attention is paid to sustainable management of natural resources, maintenance of cultural landscape, environmental protection and preservation of the settlement and the identity of rural areas. In this context measures to ensure the sustainable use of water (quality and quantity) and agricultural land and protect the biodiversity are implemented.
l Biodiversity Conservation Strategy of Slovenia (2001): The strategy stresses the approach of in-situ biodiversity conservation with the main stress on the conservation of ecosystems by preserving a favourable status of the relevant groups of plant and animal species and habitat types. It also stresses the need to preserve especially the most endangered types and forests - very important for the conservation of populations of species endangered at the European level. The Strategy also provides the orientations for the key activities of the sustainable use of components of biodiversity and sustainable development (for agriculture, forestry, hunting, fisheries, water management, transport, industry and energy industry and tourism).
l Water Management Plan (2009-2015): Slovenia is water rich country – with abundance of water in all forms with remarkable richness of animal and plant species in it. Waste water discharges, application of nutrients and plant protection products in agriculture, building of infrastructural and other objects with impacts on water environment, excessive (local) water abstraction are main pressures to the Slovenian resources. To sustain quality and quantity of water resources measures are adopted for each pressure (sector) and each river basin.
l National Strategic Plan on the Development of Fisheries in the Republic of Slovenia 2007-2013: The National Strategic Plan for Fisheries Development in the Republic of Slovenia determines the priorities for the development of fisheries and aquaculture in Slovenia in accordance with the common policy on fisheries providing a balanced and sustainable development of the fisheries sector.
l Resolution on the National Energy Programme, 2004 layed down the objectives of the energy policy: competitiveness of the energy companies, the economy and the Government, reliability in providing energy services and reduction of environmental impacts. By adopting the ReNEP, Slovenia has set ambitious objectives as regards both the increasing of efficiency of energy use in industry, the service sector, the public sector, transport and the increasing of the use of renewable energy sources for producing both electricity and heat. In 2011 the new National Energy Programme is in the preparation and it’s assessed within the strategic environmental assessment with the emphasis on climate change, biodiversity, water and air environmental aims.
l National Energy Efficiency Action Plan, 2008: The National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the period 2008-2016 (AN-URE) determines the measures for improved energy efficiency. Different instruments (sector-specific, multisectoral and horizontal measures) in all sectors (households, general consumption, industry and transport) are foreseen in order to achieve the overall energy savings in Slovenia.
l Action plan on renewable energy resources for period 2010-2020 (AN OVE), 2010: AN OVE assesses and determines the necessary quantitative values of use of energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in individual sectors (heating and cooling, electricity, transport) and provides measures to enable the use of the required quantity of OVE energy in the future. The key orientations include the development of markets of sustainably produced fuels (e.g. wood biomass, biogas), highly efficient technologies, quality services and provision of financial incentives for such development, introduction of renewable energy sources and efficient use of energy (green energy technologies) etc.
l Resolution on the Transport Policy of the Republic of Slovenia, 2006: Ministry of Transport prepared the Resolution on RS Transport Policy, subtitled as “Intermodality: time for synergy” in 2006. It set the objectives, including also efficient energy use and clean environment.
l National Mineral Resource Management Programme – General Plan: National Mineral Resource Management Programme (2009) addresses efficient mineral resource management and covers the entire mining cycle from exploration, mine development and extraction to closure and remediation.
l Operational programme on elimination of wastes with objective to reduce the quantity of biodegradable disposal wastes was adopted in 2004 and amended in March 2008. The Operational Programme determines the following strategic objectives in the waste management field: reduced generation and danger potential of waste at the point of origin, increased reuse, recycling and recovery of waste, utilisation of waste for energy purposes, reduced GHG emissions, priority redirection of waste from landfills to recovery processes and consequentially reduced number of active landfills, disposal of the maximally non-reactive remains of waste and establishment of the comprehensive and efficient system of waste management.
1. Deposit-refund system for glass, metal, laminate, plastic containers. The domain addressed by the instrument is waste management.
2. Environmental Pollution Prevention Fund is a special facility for providing financial means for environmental protection. It consists of 2 sub-schemes: grants and soft loans.
3. Subsidy on lead-free gasoline is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote the use of lead-free gasoline. It consists of state subsidy to lower the price of lead-free gasoline below that of other gasolines. The domains addressed by the instrument are air pollution and transport.
4. Support for treatment facilities is an environmentally motivated subsidy with the purpose to promote investments in treatment facilities. It consists of grants in the form of 25% discount on the total cost of electricity consumption. The domain addressed by the instrument is water pollution.
The Turkish Industrial Strategy explicitly states that one of the key elements of competitiveness will be utilization of environment-friendly technologies in the close future. Turkish industry needs to increase energy efficiency while sustaining high growth rate. Besides, increasing share of renewables in energy sector is another priority to ensure energy supply security. Transformation of industry towards cleaner production will provide resource use efficiency in many sectors. Turkey believes that approximation with EU Environmental Acquis will lay the fundamentals for cleaner production. Within this context, approximation and implementation of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive will ensure the minimization of pollution at source and increasing efficiency by use of best available technologies (BATs).
The SME Strategy and Action Plan states that the public opinion has become more sensitive regarding the prevention of environmental pollution and protection of natural resources all around the world, leading to the preference of enterprises producing and products produced without harming the environment, and in this direction, SMEs have to integrate an operational culture based on environment friendly production in order to preserve their competitiveness. Furthermore, the strategy suggests that the ability of enterprises to fulfil their environmental obligations requires the adoption of policies for environmental protection, production activities compliant with environmental standards and legislation and minimization of environmental impacts by using environmental friendly technologies.
Under the provisions of Energy Efficiency Law, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has enforced the regulation on “Eco Design of Energy Related Products” by issuing O.G. dated October 7,2010 covering refrigerators, lamps and electric motors.
A Draft “Energy Efficiency Strategy Paper 2010-2023”is also under preparation.
The Law on Utilization of Renewable Energy Resources for the Purpose of Generating Electrical Energy is one of the important laws concerning energy resources.
Energy Efficiency Law was published on 02 May 2007 for the purpose of increasing efficiency in the use of energy and energy resources in order to efficiently use energy, prevent extravagance, alleviate the burden of energy costs on the economy and protect the environment.
Under the “Hand-in-Hand ENVER (Energy Efficiency) Movement”, a step of National Energy Efficiency Movement, energy saving lamps have been distributed and awareness raising activities have been performed at primary schools.
The main act of Ukraine’s working ecological legislation is the law approved five years before the Constitution of Ukraine, “On protecting the natural environment” (1991), which created the basis for all further regulations in the corresponding field. This law considers environmental protection an essential condition of society’s sustainable development and an integrated concept that unites not only its classical and essentially protective understanding, but also ecological safety and rational use of natural resources. By this Law, Ukraine was the first among former U.S.S.R. states that legislatively fixed a wide range of citizens’ ecological rights. Ground, water, forest legislation, bowels legislation, atmospheric air protection, flora and fauna protection and use and other special legislation was developed during the last 15 years on the basis of this Law, expanding its basic provisions.
Codification of Ukraine’s natural resource legislation significantly affected the further development of ecological legislation, namely approving the Ground Code (2001), the Forest Code (1994), the Water Code (1995), the Code of Ukraine on Bowels (1994), the Laws of Ukraine “On protecting atmospheric air” (2001), “On fauna” (2001), “On flora” (1999) and “On waste products” (1998). Each of these codifying acts has settled: peculiarities involved in using and protecting separate natural resources, the basis for state and public management in the corresponding field, control implementation and definitions for legal responsibility for violations to the law.
Besides acts of resource regulation, Ukraine approved a number of other ecologically oriented laws of a general character (which were called “horizontal legislation” in the EU legislation), as well as those regulating separate spheres of social development, during the 1990s and 2000s. Among the acts of “horizontal legislation” the laws regulated by the bases of ecological safety differ. These are the laws: “On ecological examination” (1995), “On pesticides and agricultural chemicals” (1995); “On use of nuclear energy and radiation safety” (1995); “On treating radioactive waste products” (1995), “On sites of higher danger” (2001), “On ecological audit” (2004) and others.
The other group ecologically oriented “horizontal legislation” establishes special ecological-legal regimens for some categories of territories. In particular, these are the laws: “On emergency ecological situation zones” (2000), “On the legal status of emergency situations” (2000), “On the legal status of territories which suffered radioactive pollution after the Chernobyl disaster” (1991), “On a moratorium on conducting clear-cutting on juniper and beech forest hillsides of the Carpathian region” (2000), “On resorts” (2000), and others.
One of the priorities of legislative regulation in Ukraine’s ecological sphere is wildlife protection with the help of bequeathing and preserving of biological diversity. The first step in this direction was the approval of the Law of Ukraine, “On Ukraine’s natural reserves fund” (1992), which created the basis for environmental protection by means of territorial and topical protection. And the Law “On the ecological network of Ukraine” (2004), marked a new stage in the conceptual development of approaches to nature reserve protection - from preserving separate territorial units to creating a unified structural network of natural territories and sites which are subject to special state protection.
The important tendency of the last decade became the introduction of ecological factors into regulating different types and sectors of economic, administrative and other activity. In the legislation, this process was distinguished as ecologizing other areas of legislation, particularly economic, administrative, financial, etc. In this context, the most indicative are the Laws of Ukraine, “On game preserves and hunting” (2000), “On tourism” (1995, new wording 2003), as well as a number of laws which regulate town-planning and construction activity, namely: “On the fundamentals of town-planning” (1992), “On planning and building territories” (2000), and “On the general scheme of planning Ukraine’s territories” (2002). Regardless that ecological levers are starting to be gradually introduced into different sectors of Ukraine’s economy, economic, administrative, financial and other legislative areas are still not completely coordinated with the ecological sphere. Most importantly, they don’t always have the mechanisms to introduce ecological factors. Precisely this direction of developing legislative activity – ecologization in regulating the branches of Ukraine’s economic activity – dominates nowadays in light of adapting Ukraine’s ecological legislation to the EU’s legislation.
Creating mechanisms that ensure effective activity of ecological-legal norms is tightly connected to means of legal responsibility for violations to ecological legislation requirements. For violations to Ukraine’s ecological laws, four kinds of legal responsibility may be applied: disciplinary, administrative, criminal, and property (compensation for damage caused by the violation).
In the context of the environment, the Government of Bangladesh formulated an Environment Policy in 1992. The objectives of Environment Policy are to:
• maintain ecological balance and overall development through protection and improvement of the environment;
• protect the country against natural disasters;
• identify and regulate activities which pollute and degrade the environment;
• ensure environmentally sound development in all sectors;
• ensure sustainable, long term and environmentally sound use of all national resources; and,
• actively remain associated with all international environmental initiatives to the maximum possible extent.
The Government of Bangladesh has also adopted a number of supplementary policies where environment and development issues have been addressed. Important policy documents in this respect are the Forest Policy (1994), the Fisheries Policy (1998), the Water Policy (1998), the New Agriculture Extension Policy (1995), The Energy Policy (1995). Besides these sectoral policies, the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) and especially the National Environment Management Action Plan, 1995 (NEMAP) have been formulated to provide action plans to respond to environmental issues and promote sustainable development.
The second Poverty Reduction Strategy has recognized environmental degradation as one of the most crucial factors that causes and perpetuate poverty in Bangladesh. The PRSP also asserted the need for a comprehensive strategic approach to address environmental challenges and issues. Although some of these policies are not judicially enforceable according to the Constitution of Bangladesh, they are still potentially important in guiding and influencing the activities of the concerned Ministries and other governmental agencies.
The majority of environmental laws in Bangladesh were passed under substantially different population and development conditions. For example, the Factories Act of 1965 and some other health protection laws were designed before industrial pollution and hazardous substances became serious concerns. The Environment Policy of 1992 of Bangladesh has recognized the need for a better and comprehensive approach to address environmental issues.
Very few of the elements of the Environment Policy, however, are yet to be translated into laws. The only legislation which specifically deals with environment issues is the Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act (ECA) 1995. The Act was passed for conservation and improvement of environmental standards and for controlling and mitigating environmental pollution. It however, provides very few substantive obligations relating to environmental management of industries. Industries and projects would require environmental clearance from the Department of the Environment, and any person affected or likely to be affected by such activities can apply to the Director General seeking remedy of environmental pollution or degradation. The major limitations of the Act are its silences on the standards, parameters, emission levels and management elements based on which the environmental clearance should have been applied and obtained.
The Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997, were promulgated in furtherance of the objectives of the ECA, 1995. Regarding management of toxic and hazardous substances, the Rules have broadly defined guidelines for disposal of waste from different categories of industries. But unlike the Environmental Protection Rules of India, The Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997 have not specified the permissible extent of emissions or the obligations of corrective actions (IUCN, 2000).
Name of the whole voluntary scheme Green Initiative in the corporate governance
Name of this part of the scheme Green Initiative in the Corporate Governance
Geographical coverage National
Type of voluntary approach Negotiated agreement
The companies are to mention if they implemented this transition of reporting to electronic mode and its necessary impact in their annual reports.
The principal Objectives of the National Environment policy are:
- Conservation of Critical Environmental Resources
- Intra-generational Equity: Livelihood Security for the Poor
- Inter-generational Equity
- Integration of Environmental Concerns in Economic and Social Development
- Efficiency in Environmental Resource Use
- Environmental Governance
- Enhancement of Resources for Environmental Conservation
The present legislative framework is broadly contained in the umbrella of the Environment Protection Act (1986); the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1974); the Water Cess Act (1977); and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1981). The law in respect of management of forests and biodiversity is contained in the Indian Forest Act (1927); the Forest (Conservation) Act (1980); the Wild Life (Protection) Act (1972); and the Biodiversity Act (2002). There are several other enactments, which complement the provisions of these basic enactments.
Sustainable development policies in India:
Accelerated development and deployment of solar water heating systems
Accelerated Programme on Energy Recovery from Urban Wastes
Auto Fuel Policy
Coal Transport Policy
Demonstration and Promotion of Solar Photovoltaic Devices in Urban Areas
Draft Energy Conservation Building Code
Energy Conservation Act
Hydrocarbon Vision 2025
Incentives for biogas plants
National Campaign on Energy Conservation 2007
National Electricity Policy
National Energy Labeling Programme
National Environment Appellate Authority Act
National Environment Policy
National Highway Development Project
Notification on Coastal Regulation Zone
Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution
Programme on Biomass Energy and Co-generation
Programme on “Small Wind Energy and Hybrid Systems”
Research, Design and Development of Solar Thermal Technologies
Subsidies for Solar Power
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act
The Environment (Protection) Act
The Forest (Conservation) Act
The Motor Vehicle Act
The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development
The National Environment Tribunal Act
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act
Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP) analyses the country's environmental issues in multi-sectoral framework and sets forth a strategy for maintaining the country's natural environment, the health and safety of its population and its cultural heritage as economic development occurs. NEPAP was prepared in response to growing awareness about importance of maintaining a balance between economic development and environmental conservation.
With a strong back up from the 5-year national plans of the country (mainly the 8th and the 9th 5 year plans), the cases of prevention and control of pollution have been strongly reflected in the Environment Protection Act and Environment Protection Regulations of the country. The Environmental Protection act and the Environment Protection Regulation of the country came into its effect from 1997.
Nepali Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal has said a new environment protection policy will be formulated so as to protect the country’s fragile ecology.
The Nepal Government/National Planning Commission (NPC) and IUCN developed and endorsed the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) in this period for sustainable management of natural resources and the protection of the environment. The NCS for Nepal was prepared jointly as an inter-sectoral umbrella policy at the national level for addressing environmental issues during the development process.
The Environmental Protection Act (EPA) as a framework legislation covers the essential aspects related to environmental protection: the requirement for IEEs and EIAs; inspections; the provision of authority to establish protected areas; testing facilities; the establishment of a fund; the establishment of the necessary administrative mechanism; the establishment of EPC; penalties for violations of the Act; and the authority to enforce guidelines and standards.
Environmental Policy and Regulatory Framework in Pakistan:
- National Conservation Strategy: Conservation of natural resources, Sustainable development, Improved efficiency in the use and management of resources
- National Environmental Action Plan – four core programs: Clean Air, Clean Water, Solid Waste Management, Ecosystems Management
- National Environmental Policy: This policy covers all sectors and a wide range of means for promoting conservation and environmental protection in water, air and waste management, forestry, and transport. The policy aims to promote protection of the environment, the honoring of international obligations, sustainable management of resources, and economic growth. It calls for the setting of standards and regulations for ambient and indoor air quality, vehicle emissions and manufacture, energy conservation, fuel specification and building codes. It aims to promote mass transit and non motorized transport as well as cleaner technologies, including natural gas (LPG), solar, hydroelectric, biogas and cogeneration with waste, and offering tax incentives for efficient products. It also calls for creating increased public demand for environmentally friendly products through education and mass awareness campaigns.
- Environmental Protection Act (PEPA): The most significant environmental legislation in Pakistan, it requires industrial facilities to restrict their air emissions and effluents to the limits specified in the National Environmental Quality Standards and establishes the penalties for noncompliance. It also outlines the institutional framework for environmental protection in Pakistan, including creating the Environmental Protection Agency, responsible for ensuring compliance with the rules, standards and regulations set forth in this and subsequent environmental legislation. It is charged with the promtion of R&D, environmental education, and encouraging the development of NGOs to bolster governmental activities. It may provide fiscal incentives, awards, tax exemptions, allowances, or subsidies for the promotion of environmental or efficient activities, equipment or processes.
- Forestry Sector Master Plan: Reforestation and promotion of forest plantations.
- National Clean Air Act: The Clean Air legislation will aim to control vehicular emissions, pollution from industry and indoor air pollution in rural areas.
- National Climate Change Policy and Action Plan
- National Energy Conservation Policy: The policy enumerates broad guidelines to enhance end-use efficiency in various energy consuming sectors of economy. The policy is likely to create an enabling environment to support energy security plans of the government and for effecting a change in course to sustainable energy and environment patterns in the future. Initiatives include formulating legislation, developing codes and standards, create public awareness, and capacity building.
- National Environmental Quality Standards: This legislation regulates the air emissions and effluents of industry and other big polluters.
- National Forest Policy: This policy covers the renewable natural resources (RNR) of Pakistan i.e. Forests, Watersheds, Rangelands, Wildlife, Biodiversity and their habitats. The policy seeks to launch a process for eliminating the fundamental causes of the depletion of RNR through the active participation of all the concerned agencies and stakeholders, to realize the sustainable development of the resources.
- Renewable Energy Development Sector Investment Program: The program is the first of its kind in Pakistan and also one of the first to be developed under ADB’s evolving clean energy and efficiency initiative, through which ADB is planning to expand energy efficiency operations in its developing member countries to $1 billion per year. The program will expand the country’s power supply, especially in rural areas, sufficient to serve about 600,000 new domestic connections of 4.8 million people. It will also improve reliability and quality of supply.
- Renewable Energy Initiatives: Make polices, give incentives and develop tax structures to create an enabling environment for RE. To engage in a broad awareness campaign for the use of RE and to attract the private sector. Guaranteed power purchases from private sector RE investors at viable rates. Remote area electrification through RE. Initiate R&D projects in wind, solar, biomass, biogas, micro hydro, fuel cell technologies and other RE fields. Strengthen existing research institutions. Engaging in the transfer of the state of the art know how on renewable energy technologies to local research institutions and private industries in Pakistan. Expected results: more than 2,500 MW of electricity generated through RE in Pakistan by 2015, enabling environment for the private sector to invest in Renewable Energies to obtain sustainable RE growth, more that 50,000 villages electrified.