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ALBANIA



ARMENIA



AZERBAIJAN

  1. - The Law of the Azerbaijan Republic on environmental education and enlightenment of population 2002

http://www.edu.gov.az/view.php?lang=en&menu=72&id=2357


The present Law defines the legal, economic and organizational basis of state policy connected with environmentaleducation and enlightenment of population, and regulates relationship in this area.


Chapter I - General provisions


Article 1. Main concepts

1.0. The main concepts used in the Law have the following meaning:

1.0.1. Environmental education – a process of teaching and learning standards, special knowledge and experiences on the protection of environment and use of natural recourses;

1.0.2. Ecological knowledge – information about environment, ecology, mutual relationship between man and nature;

1.0.3. Ecological enlightenment – spreading experience and ecological knowledge based on the formation of ecological culture;

1.0.4. Ecological culture – body of knowledge and experience on ecological protection of population and country, and mutual relationship of man with environment;


Article 2. Legislation on environmental education and enlightenment of population

The legislation on environmental education and enlightenment of population consists of Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the current Law, laws, related to education and protection of environment, international agreements that the Republic of Azerbaijan has acceded and other relevant normative legal acts.

Article 3. Scope of the Law

3.1. The scope of the Law consists of uninterrupted environmental education and enlightenment system that reflects the principles of ecological education and relevant state educational standards. Moreover, information space on environmental education existing at educational establishments;

3.2. The Law applies to the government and municipalities, educational institutions, legal persons and individuals that involved in the enlightenment of people and implemented the management over the environmental education and enlightenment system.

Article 4. The main principles of the state policy in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population


4.1. The state policy in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population is implementing based on requirements of the legislation on environmental protection and education, relevant state programs, and principles existing in the country and international practice.

4.2. Principles of the state policy in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population consist of:

4.2.1. Creating equal conditions for everyone to receive the general ecological knowledge;

4.2.2. Compulsory environmental education in the secondary education system;

4.2.3. Uninterrupted environmental education and enlightenment process;

4.2.4. Ensuring the publicity in the area of environmental education and enlightenment; 4.2.5. Creating conditions for people and non-governmental organizations to take part in the realization of state policy in the environmental education and enlightenment area

Chapter II – Management in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population


Article 5. The rights and duties of the public authorities in the area of environmental education and enlightenment


5.1. The rights and duties of the public authorities in the area of environmental education and enlightenment are as follows:

5.1.1. Identification and implementation of main directions of the State policy in the environmental education and enlightenment area;

5.1.2. Organization of environmental education and enlightenment system;

5.1.3. Informational and scientific-methodical provision of the environmental education and enlightenment system;

5.1.4. Ensure legislation compliance with other normative legal acts;

5.1.5. Conduction the State assessment to ensure compliance of environmental education programmes;

5.1.6. Coordination and direction of activities of the government, municipalities, non-governmental organizations, relevant businesses and individuals in the area of environmental education and enlightenment;

5.1.7. Preparation, adoption and implementation of state environmental programs in the area of environmental education and enlightenment;

5.1.8. Preparation and improvement of skills of environmental specialists, scientific, pedagogicaland other staff for the environmental education and enlightenment system;

5.1.9. Preparation and implementation of international agreements and programs, interstate treaties in the area of environmental education;

5.1.10. Stimulation activities of legal and physical persons, as well as non-governmental organizations in the area of environmental education and enlightenment;

5.1.11. Ensuring the environmental education and enlightenment activity on the rational use of natural resources, protection of environment and its restoration;

5.1.12. Inclusion of the environmental education and enlightenment issues to the relevant State programs;

5.2. State programs for environmental education and enlightenment are prepared, adopted and published in the manner prescribed by the relevant executive body.


Article 6. Rights and duties of municipalities in the area of environmental education and enlightenment

6.0. The municipalities, in accordance with the Law and within its power have the following rights and duties in the area of environmental education and enlightenment:

6.0.1. Take part in the creation of structures to manage the environmental education within its territory;

6.0.2. Organize environmental education and enlightenment, in accordance with the legislation; create businesses implemented education activity in this field, use the state and municipality educational institutions and education information base;

6.0.3. Make suggestions on development and improvement of the state and regional programs for environmental education and enlightenment of population, according to the legislation, take part in the implementation of these programs and help to the development of environmental education.


Article 7. Rights and duties of individuals, non-governmental organizations and other legal persons in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population


7.1. Rights and duties of individuals, non-governmental organizations and other legal persons in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population;

7.1.1. Participate in the preparation of offers and projects, state programs related to the state policy, conduct monitoring on the quality of environmental education, develop and implement the international co-operation programs;

7.1.2. Send inquiry on environmental information required in order to ensure the educational process, and its receipt;

7.1.3. Create and use educational information and environmental education base;

7.1.4. Environmental knowledge acquisition;

7.1.5. Implement the environmental education in accordance with state educational standards;

7.1.6. Educate each person in the spirit of care and responsibility for nature;


7.2. Legal and physical persons engaged in environmental education should have the relevant document on this area.

Article 8. Coordination of activity in the area of environmental education and enlightenment of population

8.1. The Government, municipalities and non-governmental organizations coordinated their activities in the organization and realization of environmental education and enlightenment of population.

8.2. In order to coordinate these activities the relevant executive body establishes Intersectoral Commission. The activity of this Commission is controlled according to the regulations approved by the executive body.

8.3. Intersectoral Commission could consist of representatives of environmental protection, legislation, media, economics, health, law-enforcement and other State bodies, as well as municipalities and non-governmental organizations.


Article 9. Establishment of Advisory Boards on environmental education and enlightenment


9.1. Advisory Boards have been formed to inform legal and physical persons about issues on ecological education, environmental protection and natural resources use, and provide them with scientific-methodical advice.

9.2. Advisory Boards have been established under the relevant legal persons, executive bodies and municipalities that organized and executed the environmental education and enlightenment.

9.3. The activity of the Advisory Boards is governed by regulations approved by the relevant executive authority.



Chapter III – Standardsand economic regulation in the area of environmental education and enlightenment


Article 10. State educational standards in the environmental education area

10.1. State educational standards for the environmental education are prepared and approved by the relevant executive body with participation of state authorities;

10.2. Type of educational institutions in the environmental education area, content of compulsory ecological education programs for forms and stages of study defining in accordance with the relevant state educational standards;

10.3. In order to improve the quality of ecological education and define the knowledge level of experts in this field, state educational standards on environmental education accepted as a basis in the certification of documents.


Article 11. Economic regulation in the area of environmental education and enlightenment


11.1. Financial resources of environmental education and enlightenmentactivity are as follows:

11.1.1. Deductions from state and local budgets;

11.1.2. Means of state environmental funds;

11.1.3. Grants, donations and other legal incomes.

11.2. Financial resources using for the following purposes:

11.2.1. Protection of environment, definition of environmental education and enlightenment on state, regional and other programs for rational use of national resources;

11.2.2. Organization of material and moral incentives for legal and physical persons implementing the state policy

Chapter IV – Control over the execution of requirements of the legislation on environmental education and enlightenment of population


Article 12. Control over the execution of Law


12.1. State control over the execution of Law is implemented by the relevant executive bodies.

12.2. The relevant executive bodies are prepared and published the annual report on environmental education and enlightenment of population.

12.3. Non-governmental organizations could take part in the implementation of public control over the execution of Law, as well as make suggestions on this area to Intersectoral Commission and Advisory Boards.


Article 13. Responsibility for violations of Law


13.1. Responsibility for violations of the current Law defined with the relevant legislation.

13.2. Arguments in the area of environmental education and enlightenment are considered as defined by legislation.

Chapter V– International cooperation


Article 14. International cooperation in the area of environmental education and enlightenment

14.1. In order to organize the environmental education and enlightenment efficiently, the use of international practice, issues of inclusion the country to the world environmental education and enlightenment, as well as information space is based on the international cooperation principles.

14.2. International cooperation in the environmental education and enlightenment area is implementing based on legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan, international treaties and agreements.

14.3. International cooperation is implementing in accordance with treaties, agreements, conventions, and agreements between the Republic of Azerbaijan and legal and physical persons of foreign countries.


http://www.edu.gov.az/upload/file/milli_kurikulum-eng.pdf


On the Ministry of Education website, in the Legislation section there is a National Curriculum document (link above), with the mention that it has been approved by a decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan.


In the same section of the website there is an Executive Order of the Minister of Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan on approving the curricula for V-XI classes of general education schools.



BANGLADESH


BELARUS



BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

  1. - Framework law on primary and secondary education Bosnia and Herzegovina 2003

http://www.fmon.gov.ba/images//okvirni%20zakon%20o%20osnovnom%20i%20srednjem%20obrazovanju.pdf


Article 42

In all public and private schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be established and implemented zajedničko jezgro nastavnih planova i programa. the common core curriculum.

Član 43.

Article 43

Zajedničko jezgro nastavnih planova i programa sastoji se od nastavnih planova i programa saThe common core curriculum consists of a curriculum with łto je moguće łirom zajedničkom jezgrom za sve predmete osnovnog i općeg srednjeg obrazovanja. as possible across the common core for all cases of primary and general secondary education.

Zajedničko jezgro nastavnih planova i programa izrađuje posebanо ad hoc privremeno tijelo.The common core curriculum developed by a special ad hoc temporary body.

Članove ovog tijela imenuju ministri obrazovanja entiteta, kantona i Brčko Distrikta BiH, a jednogThe members of this body are appointed by Ministers of Education of the entities, cantons and Brcko District, a single člana imenuje ministar civilnih poslova. members appointed by the Minister of Civil Affairs.

Na prijedlog privremenog tijela iz prethodnog stava, sporazum o zajedničkom jezgruOn the proposal of the interim authority in the preceding paragraph, an agreement on a common nastavnih planova i programa usvajaju i potpisuju ministri obrazovanja entiteta, ministri obrazovanja curriculum is adopted and signed by ministers of education entities, Ministers of Educationsvih kantona iz Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine, te predstavnik Brčko Distrikta Bosne i Hercegovine. in all the cantons in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Brcko District Representative of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Zajedničko jezgro nastavnih programa i planova će:The common core curriculum will:

a)a) osigurati da se kroz vaspitno-obrazovni proces razvija pozitivan odnos i osjećajensure that the educational process of developing a positive attitude and sense of pripadnosti dršavi Bosni i Hercegovini; belonging to the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

b)b) garantirati i osigurati kvalitetno obrazovanje za svu djecu i dostizanjeguarantee and ensure quality education for all children and achievezadovoljavajućeg standarda znanja, vjełtina i sposobnosti; satisfactory knowledge, skills and abilities;

c)c)osigurati dosljednost kvaliteta standarda obrazovanja u svim łkolama i na svim ensure consistency in the quality standards of education in all schools and allnivoima obrazovanja; levels of education;

d)d)osigurati zadovoljavajuću usklađenost nastavnih planova i programa, kao i njihovu ensure the satisfactory coordination of curricula, as well as theirprilagodljivost, u skladu sa specifičnim potrebama łkole i lokalne zajednice; flexibility, in accordance with the specific needs of schools and local communities;

e)e)osigurati primjenu nastavnih planova i programa koji odgovaraju razvojnim ensure the implementation of curricula that are appropriate for developmentpotrebama djece na koju se odnose, te njihovom uzrastu i posebnim interesima sa needs of the children concerned, their age and special interest with akcentom na promociju zdravog načina šivota kao najvećeg interesa učenika, emphasis on promoting healthy way of life in the best interest of students,roditelja, nastavnog osoblja i drułtva; Parents, teachers and society;

f)f)osigurati slobodu kretanja i jednak pristup obrazovanju; ensure freedom of movement and equal access to education;

g)g)garantirati ekonomičnost i efikasnost u finansiranju i radu łkole. guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency in financing and operation of schools.

Član 44.

Article 44

Velika većina pedagołkih aktivnosti u łkoli sastojat će se od predmeta i nastavnih programa The vast majority of pedagogical activities in the school will consist of courses and curricula and planova predviđenih zajedničkim jezgrama nastavnih programa i pplans provided for the common core curriculum.

U okviru zajedničkog jezgra nastavnih programa i planova, javne i privatne łkole imajuWithin the common core curriculum, public and private schools haveslobodu kreiranja i realizacije nastavnih sadršaja po svom izboru, u skladu sa članovoma 3., 7., 8., 10., freedom to create and implement instructional content of their choice, in accordance with articles 3, 7, 8, 10, 34., 36. 34, 36 i članom 41. and 41 ovog zakona. this law.

Član 45.

Article 45

Nadlešne obrazovne vlasti utvrđuju i ostale standarde i normative u obrazovanju, u pogledu:The competent authorities shall determine the educational and other standards and norms, in terms of:

a) prostora, opreme i nastavnih sredstava u łkolama, a) premises, equipment and teaching aids in schools,

b) vremena za łkolske i nastavne aktivnosti, b) time for school and educational activities;

c) udšbenika i drugog didaktičkog materijala, c) textbooks and other teaching materials,

d) obrazovnog procesa, d) the educational process,

e) obrazovnih i profesionalnih kompetencija nastavnika, e) educational and professional skills of teachers,

f) ocjenjivanja učenika, f) assessment of students,

g) normativa o obimu rada (nastavna norma i radna norma za sve uposlene u łkoli), normativa o g) Workload (teaching and working standards for all employees of the school), norms of uslovima rada (broj učenika u razredu i vaspitnoj grupi u nastavnim i vannastavnim conditions (number of students and educational group in curricular and extracurricularaktivnostima). activities).


Standardima i normativima u obrazovanju osigurava se dosljedna i efikasna primjenaStandards and norms ensure consistent and effective implementationzajedničkih jezgara nastavnih programa i planova u svim łkolama u Bosni i Hercegovini. common core curriculum in all schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Član 46.

Article 46

Tijela za uspostavu standarda u obrazovanju u Bosni i Hercegovini su: Agencija za standarde Body for setting standards in education in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Standards and ocjenjivanje u obrazovanju osnovana međuentiteskim sporazumom 2000.Assessment established inter-entity agreement 2000thgodine, Agencija, Agency for nastavne programe i planove, postojeće stručne ustanove entiteta i kantona, Brčko Distrikta Bosne icurricula, the existing technical institutions of the entities and cantons, Brcko District of Bosnia and Hercegovine, kao i druga stalna i povremena stručna tijela. Herzegovina, as well as other permanent and temporary professional bodies.

Član 48.

Article 48

Agencija za nastavne planove i programe je nezavisno stručno tijelo zadušeno zaAgency of the curricula is an independent expert body in charge ofimplementaciju zajedničkog jezgra nastavnih planova i programa na svim nivoima obrazovanja, koje implementing the common core curriculum at all levels of educationtretira ovaj zakon. by this Law.

Zajedničko jezgro nastavnih programa i planova objavljuje se u svim slušbenim glasilima uThe common core curriculum is published in all official publications of Bosni i Hercegovini. Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Agencija za nastavne planove i programe odgovorna je za implementaciju, praćenje,Agency of the curricula is responsible for implementing, monitoring,evaluaciju, usavrłavanje i razvoj zajedničkog jezgra za nastavne programe i planove, u skladu sa evaluation, training and development of common core curricula in accordance withstandardima utvrđenim ovim zakonom i standardima u dršavama obuhvaćenim evropskim standards established by this law and standards in the countries covered by Europeanintegracijama. integration.

Agencija za nastavne planove i programe radit će u saradnji s Agencijom za standarde iAgency curricula will work in collaboration with the Standards and evaluation.


BULGARIA


CROATIA


Law on education in elementary and middle school 2008

http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/340388.html


The National Curriculum


Članak 26.Article 26

(1) Odgoj i obrazovanje u školi ostvaruje se na temelju nacionalnog kurikuluma, nastavnih planova i programa i školskog kurikuluma.(1) Education in schools is realized on the basis of the national curriculum, instruction plans and programs and school curricula.

(2) Nacionalni kurikulum utvrđuje vrijednosti, načela, općeobrazovne ciljeve i ciljeve poučavanja, koncepciju učenja i poučavanja, pristupe poučavanju, obrazovne ciljeve po obrazovnim područjima i predmetima definirane ishodima obrazovanja, odnosno kompetencijama te vrednovanje i ocjenjivanje.(2) The National Curriculum is a set of values, principles, general aims and objectives of teaching, learning and teaching concepts, teaching approaches, learning objectives by learning area and subject defined learning outcomes and competencies, and evaluation and assessment.

(3) Nacionalni kurikulum donosi ministar.(3) The National Curriculum is adopted by the Minister.


Nastavni plan i programInIInInstruction plans and programs


Članak 27.Article 27

(1) Nastavnim planom i programom utvrđuje se tjedni i godišnji broj nastavnih sati za obvezne i izborne nastavne predmete, njihov raspored po razredima, tjedni broj nastavnih sati po predmetima i ukupni tjedni i godišnji broj sati te ciljevi, zadaće i sadržaji svakog nastavnog predmeta.(1) The instruction plans and programs determinethe weekly and annual number of hours of compulsory and elective subjects, their distribution among classes, the weekly number of hours per case and total weekly and annual hours of the objectives, tasks and contents of each subject.

(2) Izborni predmeti obvezni su tijekom cijele školske godine za sve učenike koji se za njih opredijele, a učenik bira izborni predmet ili izborne predmete na početku školske godine.(2) Elective courses are mandatory throughout the school year for all students who opt for them, and the student chooses elective or optional subjects at the beginning of the school year.

(3) Učenik može prestati pohađati izborni predmet nakon pisanog zahtjeva i obrazloženja roditelja učenika i učenika učiteljskom vijeću do početka školske godine pod uvjetom da obveznu satnicu zamijeni drugim izbornim predmetom ili aktivnošću u školi.(3) The student may stop attending an elective subject after written request and explanation of the parents and Teachers' Council after the start of the school year provided that the statutory timetable replaces it with another elective course or activity at school.

(4) Strani jezik koji se počinje učiti u prvom razredu osnovne škole prvi je strani jezik do kraja osnovnog obrazovanja. (5) Nastavni plan i program osnovne škole sadrži obvezne i izborne predmete.(5) The primary school curriculum includes compulsory and elective courses.

(6) Nastavni plan i program gimnazija sadrži zajednički, izborni i fakultativni dio.(6) The gymnasium curriculum includes elective and optional part.

(7) Nastavni plan i program strukovnih škola sadrži zajednički općeobrazovni, posebni stručni i fakultativni dio.(7) The vocational schools curriculum includes of general educational, vocational and special optional part.

(8) U zajedničkom općeobrazovnom i posebnom stručnom dijelu nastavnog plana i programa nalaze se i izborni predmeti od kojih učenik bira jedan ili više predmeta prema svojim interesima i sklonostima.(8) In a joint general and special professional part of the curriculum also includes elective courses from which students choose one or more objects according to their interests and preferences.

(9) Zajednički dio nastavnog plana i programa gimnazije sadrži nastavne predmete koji su obvezni za sve učenike određene vrste programa, a izborni dio obuhvaća predmete od kojih učenik obvezno bira jedan ili više nastavnih predmeta prema svojim sklonostima.(9) The common part of the high school curriculum includes teaching subjects that are compulsory for all students of a certain type of program, and includes the election of the items of which the student must choose one or more subjects according to their preferences.

(10) Zajednički općeobrazovni dio nastavnog plana i programa za stjecanje srednje i niže stručne spreme sadrži općeobrazovne predmete koji su zajednički i obvezni za određenu razinu obrazovanja, a posebni stručni dio nastavnog plana i programa sadrži strukovne predmete (strukovno-teorijske predmete i praktičnu nastavu) koji su vezani za određeno zanimanje.(10) of the common general education curriculum for the acquisition of middle and lower qualifications include general education courses that are common to and obligatory for a certain level of education, a special part of the professional curriculum includes vocational courses (vocational-theoretical subjects and practical training) related to a particular profession.

(11) Fakultativni dio nastavnog plana i programa u srednjoj školi obuhvaća nastavne predmete, odnosno nastavne sadržaje kojima se zadovoljavaju interesi učenika u skladu s mogućnostima škole te sadržaje i oblike slobodnih aktivnosti.(11) Optional part of the high school curriculum in covering subjects or courses that meet students' interests in accordance with the possibilities of schools and facilities and forms of leisure activities. Ako se učenik srednje škole opredijeli za fakultativni predmet, dužan ga je pohađati tijekom nastavne godine. If you are a high school student and decide for optional subject, it is required to attend during the school year.

(12) Nastavni plan i program iz stavka 5.(12) The curriculum in paragraph 5 oovog članka te zajednički i izborni dio nastavnog plana i programa donosi ministar, a fakultativni dio srednja škola.of this article and share the elective part of the curriculum adopted by the Minister, and an optional part of the school.


Školski kurikulum i godišnji plan i program rada školske ustanoveThe school curriculum and an annual work plan and program of school facility


Članak 28.Article 28

(1) Škola radi na temelju školskog kurikuluma i godišnjeg plana i programa rada, a učenički dom na temelju godišnjeg plana i programa rada.(1) The school is based on the school curriculum and the annual plan and work program, a boarding school on the basis of the annual plan and work program.

(2) Školski kurikulum utvrđuje dugoročni i kratkoročni plan i program škole s izvannastavnim i izvanškolskim aktivnostima, a donosi se na temelju nacionalnog kurikuluma i nastavnog plana i programa.(2) The school curriculum is determined by long-and short-term plan and program of the school with extra-curricular and extracurricular activities, and shall be based on the national curriculum and the instruction plans and programs.

(3) Školski kurikulum određuje nastavni plan i program izbornih predmeta, izvannastavne i izvanškolske aktivnosti i druge odgojno-obrazovne aktivnosti, programe i projekte prema smjernicama hrvatskog nacionalnog obrazovnog standarda.(3) The school curriculum determines the instruction plans and programs, electives, and extracurricular school activities and other educational activities, programs and projects according to the guidelines of the Croatian national education standard.

(4) Školskim kurikulumom se utvrđuje:(4) School curriculum is determined by:

– aktivnost, program i/ili projekt - Activities, programs and / or project

– ciljevi aktivnosti, programa i/ili projekta - Objectives of the activities, programs and / or project

– namjena aktivnosti, programa i/ili projekta - Purpose of activities, programs and / or project

– nositelji aktivnosti, programa i/ili projekta i njihova odgovornost - Holders of the activities, programs and / or project and their responsibility

– način realizacije aktivnosti, programa i/ili projekta - How the activities, programs and / or project

– vremenik aktivnosti, programa i/ili projekta - Time schedule activities, programs and / or project

– detaljan troškovnik aktivnosti, programa i/ili projekta - A detailed cost estimate of the activities, programs and / or project

– način vrednovanja i način korištenja rezultata vrednovanja. - The method of evaluation and use of evaluation results.

(5) Školski kurikulum donosi školski odbor do 15.(5) The school curriculum is brought to the school boardonrujna tekuće školske godine na prijedlog učiteljskog, odnosno nastavničkog vijeća. 15September of the current school year on a proposal from the teachers or teachers' council.

(6) Školski kurikulum mora biti dostupan svakom roditelju i učeniku u pisanom obliku.(6) The school curriculum must be available to every parent and student in writing.

(7) Smatra se da je školski kurikulum dostupan svakom roditelju i učeniku u pisanom obliku, ako je objavljen na mrežnim stranicama škole.(7) It is believed that the school curriculum is available to all parents and students in writing, if published on the website of the school. (8) Godišnji plan i program rada donosi se na osnovi nastavnog plana i programa i školskog kurikuluma, a donosi ga školski, odnosno domski odbor do 30.

(8) Annual Plan and work program shall be based on the curriculum and the school curriculum, and adopted by the school or public care committee by 30 rujna tekuće školske godine. September of the current school year.

(9) Godišnjim planom i programom rada školske ustanove utvrđuje se mjesto, vrijeme, način i izvršitelji poslova, a sadrži u pravilu:(9) Annual Plan and work program of the schools is determined by place, time, manner and the worker, and includes as a rule:

– podatke o uvjetima rada, - Information on working conditions,

– podatke o izvršiteljima poslova, - Information on the worker,

– godišnji kalendar rada, - An annual calendar of work,

– podatke o dnevnoj i tjednoj organizaciji rada, - Data on a daily and weekly work organization,

– tjedni i godišnji broj sati po razredima i oblicima odgojno-obrazovnog rada, - Weekly and annual hours by grades and forms of educational work,

– planove rada ravnatelja, učitelja, odnosno nastavnika te stručnih suradnika, - Plans of the principal, teachers, or teachers and assistants,

– planove rada školskog, odnosno domskog odbora i stručnih tijela, - Plans of the school and dormitory committees and professional bodies,

– plan stručnog osposobljavanja i usavršavanja, u skladu s potrebama škole, - A plan for professional training, in accordance with the needs of schools,

– podatke o ostalim aktivnostima u funkciji odgojno-obrazovnog rada i poslovanja školske ustanove. - Information about other activities in the function of educational work and business schools.


Eksperimentalni programThe experimental program


Članak 29.Article 29

(1) Škola može provoditi eksperimentalni program koji odobri Ministarstvo, a kojim se provjerava vrijednost novih obrazovnih sadržaja, oblika i metoda rada, kao i nove nastavne opreme.(1) A school may conduct an experimental program approved by the Ministry, which checks the value of new educational materials, forms and methods, as well as new teaching equipment.

(2) Eksperimentalni program sadrži:(2) The experimental program includes:

– cilj, zadaću, obrazovne ishode, sadržaj, - Goal, task, learning outcomes, content,

– mjesto i način izvođenja, - Place and manner of performance,

– vrijeme potrebno za realizaciju programa, - The time required for the program,

– prostorne, kadrovske i druge uvjete, - Space, staffing and other requirements,

– način stručnog praćenja i vrjednovanja programa, - The professional way of monitoring and evaluation program,

– financijska sredstva potrebna za realizaciju programa. - The financial resources necessary to implement the program.

(3) Eksperimentalne programe, uvjete i način rada donosi ministar.(3) Experimental programs, conditions and operation are adopted by the Minister.


Alternativni programAlternative Program


Članak 30.Article 30

U školi se može ostvarivati odgojno-obrazovni rad prema alternativnim nastavnim programima, odnosno metodama, u skladu s ovim Zakonom.The school may pursue educational work toward alternative curricula and methods, in accordance with this Act.


Umjetnički i športski programArts and Sports Program


Članak 31.Article 31

(1) Škola može izvoditi umjetničko i športsko obrazovanje u skladu s ovim Zakonom, ako posebnim propisima nije drukčije određeno.(1) The school may run arts and sports education in accordance with this Act, if special legislation provides otherwise.

(2) Programe za školovanje iz stavka 1.(2) Training programs for paragraph 1ovog članka i uvjete za njihovo izvođenje donosi ministar. of this article and the conditions for their implementationare adopted by the Minister.


Dopunska nastavaAdditional lessons


Članak 33.Article 33

(1) Za učenike kojima je potrebna pomoć u učenju škola je dužna organizirati dopunsku nastavu.(1) For students who need help in learning the school is obliged to organize additional classes.

(2) Dopunska nastava organizira se na određeno vrijeme kad je takav oblik pomoći učenicima potreban.(2) Remedial courses are organized for a definite time when this kind of help students need.


Dodatna nastavaAdditional classes


Članak 34.Article 34

Za učenike koji u određenom nastavnom predmetu ostvaruju natprosječne rezultate ili pokazuju poseban interes za određeni nastavni predmet škola je dužna organizirati dodatnu nastavu u koju se učenik uključuje na temelju vlastite odluke.For students in certain subject or achieve above average results show a special interest in the subject school is obliged to organize additional classes in which the student is included on the basis of their own decisions.


Izvannastavne aktivnostiExtracurricular Activities


Članak 35.Article 35

(1) Radi zadovoljavanja različitih potreba i interesa učenika školska ustanova organizira posebne izvannastavne aktivnosti.(1) To meet different needs and interests of students of institutions organize special school extracurricular activities.

(2) Izvannastavne aktivnosti se planiraju školskim kurikulumom i godišnjim planom i programom rada neposrednih nositelja odgojno-obrazovne djelatnosti u školskoj ustanovi.(2) Extracurricular activities are planned to the school curriculum and an annual plan and work program of direct holder of educational activities in school facilities.

(3) Izvannastavne aktivnosti nisu obvezni dio učenikovog opterećenja, ali se mogu priznati učenicima kao ispunjavanje obveza u školi.(3) Extracurricular activities are not a mandatory part of the student's load, but can be recognized as fulfilling obligations to students at the school.

Članak 36.

Article 36

(1) Učenik može biti uključen u izvanškolske aktivnosti.(1) A student may be involved in extracurricular activities.

(2) Rad učenika u izvanškolskim aktivnostima može se priznati učenicima kao ispunjavanje školskih obveza.(2) The work of students in extracurricular activities, students can be recognized as fulfilling the obligations of school.


Članak 37.Article 37

(1) Škola može planirati u godišnjem planu i programu rada škole i školskom kurikulumu poludnevne, jednodnevne i višednevne odgojno-obrazovne aktivnosti u mjestu i izvan mjesta u kojem je smještena.(1) The school may plan in the annual curriculum of the school curriculum and school half-day, one or more days of educational activities in and out of place in which it is located.

(2) Aktivnosti iz stavka 1.(2) The activities referred to in paragraph 1 ovog članka su: izleti, ekskurzije i druge aktivnosti koje su isključivo u funkciji realizacije nacionalnog kurikuluma i nastavnog plana i programa. this article as: trips, excursions and other activities are solely for the realization of the national curriculum and the instruction plans and programs.


Članak 38.Article 38

(1) Za svaku aktivnost iz članka 37.(1) For each activity referred to in Article 37 ofovog Zakona, škola je dužna izraditi detaljan program aktivnosti s ciljevima, načinom realizacije, vremenikom, troškovnikom, načinom financiranja i načinom vrednovanja, te zatražiti pisanu suglasnost roditelja. this Act, the school is to prepare a detailed program of activities with the objectives, method of implementation, time schedule, cost, financing method and evaluation methods, and request written parental consent.

(2) Za svaku aktivnost iz članka 37.(2) For each activity referred to in Article 37 ovog Zakona, škola uz voditelja mora osigurati pratnju sukladno broju učenika, a za učenike s teškoćama pratnju sukladno njihovim teškoćama. this Act, the Head of School must provide accompaniment according to the number of students and for students with disabilities in accordance with the accompaniment of their difficulties.

(3) Program aktivnosti je dio godišnjeg plana i programa rada škole i školskog kurikuluma.(3) The activity is part of the annual plan and work program of the school and the schoolcurriculum.


Učeničke zadrugePupils' Cooperative


Članak 39.Article 39

(1) Škola može osnovati učeničku zadrugu kao oblik izvannastavne aktivnosti sukladno statutu škole i posebnim propisima.(1) Schools may establish school cooperatives as a form of extracurricular school activities in accordance with the statute and specific regulations.

(2) Škola može stavljati u promet proizvode nastale kao rezultat rada učenika.(2) The school may market products resulting from the work of students.

(3) Sredstva stečena prometom proizvoda i usluga učeničke zadruge posebno se evidentiraju, a mogu se uporabiti samo za rad učeničke zadruge i unapređenje odgojno-obrazovnog rada škole.(3) Assets acquired products and services, students' unions in particular are recorded and may be used only for the work of student unions and the improvement of educational work of the school.


CYPRUS



CZECH REPUBLIC


Education Act 2008

http://www.msmt.cz/uploads/soubory/zakony/Uplne_zneni_SZ_317_08.pdf


<Google Translate did not offer an accurate translation of the document>


EGYPT



ESTONIA


Primary and Secondary Schools Act 2010

https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/13337919


§ 15 The National Curriculum


(1) National curriculum defines the study objectives, expected outcomes, evaluating the conditions and requirements for environmental education, training and education organization, school completion and school curriculum.

(2) Establishes the standard of basic education in the national school curriculum, and simplified maintenance and hooldusõppel the simplified national curriculum for primary school students. Establishes the standard of general secondary school national curriculum. Curriculum for basic schools, simplified national curriculum for primary and secondary education curricula (together, the national curricula) are established by the Government of the Republic.

(3) Basic national curriculum and the school national curriculum presented ainevaldkonniti at least the following compulsory courses syllabi: 1) Language and Literature: Estonian language (Estonian-language schools), Russian (Russian-language schools), and literature, 2) Foreign Languages: Estonian as a second language A-native English, German, French, Russian, B-native English, German, French, Russian; 3) mathematics: basic mathematics, high school narrow mathematics and broad math, 4) the natural sciences: biology , geography, physics, chemistry and basic national curriculum in natural science, 5) social sciences: human studies, history, social studies, 6) arts subjects: music, art, 7) the primary National Curriculum Technology: Crafts and home economics, technology studies, 8) physical education : Physical Education.

(4) In addition to containing a national curriculum for primary and secondary National Curriculum and religious education and a career in high school national curriculum and teaching of national defense and economic substance and business education programs. National curriculum for primary school and secondary school national curriculum may provide a range of other subjects Curricula.

(5) integrated subject and language use of pre vocational training or to conduct a regional specificity and uniqueness of a school into the national curricula, and the consent of the board of trustees and procedure provided in this section shall make the list of subjects. Due to the out-learning or educational special needs student can under the conditions provided in national curricula and teaching load between the nominal period of this Act.



§ 17 The school curriculum


(1) The basis for the preparation of national school curricula, curriculum, school learning is the basic document.

(2) The school curriculum for the school director. School curriculum and its amendments shall be submitted before the imposition of an opinion to the board of trustees of the school, academic and student representative to the Council.

(3) Data entered in the school curriculum on education and training curricula of information systems enable the sub-register.

(4) A student or a legally incompetent student of a parent and a director or director of an authorized teacher in agreement with the school in the school curricular learning or activity, including studies in another school of general education schools to be taught as part of a condition that it allows students to achieve a school or an individual curriculum defined learning outcomes.


§ 18 Individual curriculum


(1) A school may make changes or modifications in teaching students learning time, learning content, learning process and learning environment. If changes or adjustments involving weeks of effort or intensity of training a significant increase or decrease compared to the school curriculum or national curriculum learning outcomes set out in the reduction or replacement, the student must draw up a national educational curricula in accordance with individual curriculum.

(2) If the educational curriculum for special needs students prepare an individual learning outcomes set out in the national curriculum provides for the reduction or replacement of, or exemption from a mandatory subject of learning, the curriculum for an individual to implement the panel's recommendation.

(3) The curriculum for the individual involved in the preparation of a student or a parent of a student with a mental need of teachers and support professionals.



§ 20 Textbooks


(1) The school allows students to use the free primary education in the acquiring of the necessary textbooks for the school to complete the curriculum, employment records, workbooks and worksheets, and acquiring general secondary education students are required to complete the curriculum of the school textbooks.

(2) Textbooks, employment records, worksheets, workbooks and textbooks for school use and to return to school down the conditions and procedures for the procedure. Employment record books, workbooks and worksheets, the school may not require restitution.

(3) Textbooks, the record books, workbooks and other educational literature requirements, textbooks, and peer reviewers retsenseerimisele requirements are established by the Minister of Education and Science.

(4) Shall be borne by the publisher of textbooks in education and research the requirements established by the study of literature data on education in sub-register of the information system of educational literature.

(5) Foreign textbooks published textbooks in the education information system data registers in the register sub-study tool in spreading legal entity.

(6) For each class, learning the necessary textbooks, workbooks, select the school record books and textbooks education information system sub-register.

(7) Education and Science Minister has the right to delete education information system of textbooks in the sub-register of the registration if: 1) the study of literature is published by a reasoned request, 2) the study of literature does not meet the national curricula or education and regulation of the Minister textbooks required.

(8) If the publisher of textbooks are requested to delete the registration of textbooks in the sub-register, but the Secretary determines that the request is not justified and recorded in textbooks corresponds to the national curriculum, it may reasonably refuse the deletion of the registration.

(9) Education and Science of deletion of registration shall notify the issuer of its intention to study literature. The issuer has the right to study the literature of education and research minister to remove objections to the registration within 30 days of notice of intention to delete a registration is sent.

(10) Education and Research shall, after deleting the registration of the publisher of textbooks written record within five working days.



§ 25 The workload and schedule


(1) Student-week courses of study load determined by the school curriculum.

(2) Primary school pupils the maximum weekly teaching load of academic classes are: 1) 1 Class 20, 2) 2 Class 23, 3) 3 and 4 Class 25, 4) 5 Class 28; 5) 6 and 7 Class 30, 6) 8 and 9 Class

(3) The student allowed the smallest high school teaching load is 96 (out-72 education) courses. Compulsory subject for all pupils in a single load of 63 high school (a student who is studying in Estonian as a second language 67) courses. The course corresponds to 35 within the scope of one subject to the lesson.

(4) instruction is taken into account when planning and carrying out the student's academic life and the load would be manageable, allowing him time to rest and leisure time activities.

(5) The teacher will plan for its work in collaboration with other teachers. School term or during the course of the main themes of the necessary teaching aids, evaluation and organization of events are planned for pupils in primary and secondary school pupils of a school term at the beginning of the course.

(6) The school schedule reflects the learning activities and curriculum to support extra-curricular activities, such as after-school groups, clubs and studios in the actions and sequence duration. Plan established by the director of the school day.

(7) The Health Plan and the school's educational organization established by the Minister of Social Affairs.


FYRO MACEDONIA


Law for Elementary Education

http://www.mon.gov.mk/download_mk/Documents/Zakoni/zakon+za+osnovnoto+obrazovanie.pdf


Curriculum and instructional programs


Article 25

(1) The Minister shall determine the concept of primary education on foundation on which to bring the curriculum and teaching programs for primary Education (hereinafter referred to as curriculum and programs).

(2) In primary school education activities are organized and carried out according to curriculum and programs, at the proposal of the Bureau determined by the minister.

(3) The curriculum for elementary school includes compulsory and elective additional and supplementary instruction, and classes for the class community.

(4) The curriculum determines the annual and weekly number of hours classes separately by the mandatory and optional items, their order of departments, the number of weekly hours of additional teaching hours for additional instruction and time for the class community.

(5) The curriculum determines the educational objectives, content, basic concepts, activities and teaching methods, assessment of achievement students, the conditions for implementing the curriculum and standards for teaching staff.


Article 26

In elementary school can be achieved in religious education as an optional subject.


Article 27

Additional classes are organized for students who have learning difficulties andwho require occasional help during the school year.


Article 28

Additional classes are organized for students who show significant results in individual items.


Article 29

The hour of class community developed content for personal and social development of pupils under the program as determined by the Minister, the proposal of the Bureau.


Article 30

(1) The curriculum for primary education of students with special educational needs in special schools and special classes in primary schools is determined by the Minister, upon proposal of the Bureau.

(2) For students with special needs education compulsory and elective subjects realized with customized programs tailored to their particular educational needs.


Article 31

Curricula for elementary music and ballet education determines Minister on the proposal of the Bureau.


Article 32

(1) The primary school is realized and expanded program under Concept Primary education.

(2) The expanded program includes organized elementary school acceptance and protection of students one hour before the start of classes for regular classes and one hour after the regular classes, and extended stay.


Article 33

(1) Primary school pupils in first, second and third grade organize acceptance and protection of students one hour before the start of classes regular classes and one hour after completion of training, in accordance with the parent.

(2) Primary school pupils from first to third grade can arrange extended stay with students from the same class, after approval by Ministry. The extended stay students are included in accordance with the parent.

(3) If the conditions and resources provided by the founder, primary school can extended stay organized for students in groups, from first to fifth grade with students from the same department or from first to third and fourth and fifth grade students from different departments. The extended stay students are included in accordance with the parent.

(4) During the extended stay students learn, work the homework, operate other school commitments and participate in cultural and other activities, in accordance with the annual work program of the school.


Article 34

(1) To develop the diverse interests of elementary school students organizes free student activities that are determined by annual work program of the school.

(2) Students in the free student activities include voluntary.

(3) The method of organizing and conducting competitions of students in individual items at the municipal, regional and national level is determined by the Minister in cooperation with the Bureau.

(4) The manner of execution of school excursions and other leisure activities is determined by the Minister, upon proposal from the Bureau.


GEORGIA


The Law on General Education

http://www.mes.gov.ge/old/upload/editor/file/Brdzanebebi/1/zogadi%20ganaTlebis%20shesaxeb.pdf


Article 26. The authority of the Ministry of Education and Science


1. The Ministry of Education and Science in Secondary Education



D) Develops and approves a public legal entity - the National Curriculum Center - the Teacher National Center for Professional Development, Law - Educational institution, police service and public law Legal entity - Educational and Scientific Infrastructure Development Provisions of the Agency;



F) Approves the national curriculum developed by the National Center for Curriculum;



GREECE



HUNGARY


Act No. LXXIX of 1993 on Public Education

http://www.nefmi.gov.hu/letolt/english/act_lxxxix_1993_091103.pdf


Article 8

….

(9) The unity of the content of school education and teaching and the possibility of shifting from one school to another in the phase establishing general knowledge are guaranteed by the National Core Curriculum. The National Core Curriculum may set obligatory provisions within the sphere of educational administration with special regard to the limitation of the weekly and daily teaching loads of students. The National Core Curriculum is to specify the tasks of schools related to health development, consumer protection and environment protection. The framework curricula issued by the minister responsible for education assist in completing those stated in the National Core Curriculum.

(10) The National Core Curriculum specifies the obligatory and common purposes of the educational-teaching work performed in the phase establishing general knowledge and its requirements of a nature of knowledge, skill and ability for each field of learning and in compliance with the principles and rights stated in the preamble as well as in Sections (1)-(3) of Article 4, Sections (1)-(3) of Article 10 and Article 13 of this Act.

(11) The National Core Curriculum contains the basic principles of the special curricular requirements of

a) national and ethnic minority school education and teaching;

b) the school education and teaching of students with special educational needs.

(12) The National Core Curriculum may specify obligatory provisions with regard to the preparation of the local curriculum.


Article 8/A

(1) The framework curriculum contains recommendations on the following:

a) the purpose of education and teaching, the system of subjects, the topics of each subject, the contents of the topics, the subject requirements for each year, the time allotment available to fulfill the requirements, the performance of the tasks regarding health development, consumer protection and environment protection;

….

(7) The framework curricula shall be issued by the minister responsible for education after they have asked the National Public Education Council to give consent and the Council of Public Education to give an opinion and the National Minorities Commission to give consent in issues concerning national or ethnic minority education. The framework curriculum and the examination requirements for the secondary school leaving examination have to be in conformity with each other.


Article 45

(2) Schools shall prepare a pedagogical programme and a local curriculum on the basis of the National Core Curriculum as part of the pedagogical programme, unless otherwise stipulated by this Act; or select one from the local curricula prepared in this manner which is then built into their pedagogical programme as a local curriculum. Schools may prepare their local curriculum on the basis of the framework curricula issued by the minister responsible for education or a framework curriculum can be built into their pedagogical programme as a local curriculum. Secondary schools also take account of the examination requirements for the examination subjects of the secondary school leaving examination when preparing their local curriculum.


Article 52

….

(7) Schools organise non-compulsory (optional) curricular activities in accordance with the interest and demand of students for the purposes of coaching, development, cultivation of talent, consultation and imparting special or additional knowledge (hereinafter called non-compulsory curricular activities). If the head teacher, with the agreement of the maintainer, does not specify a larger time allotment, the weekly time allotment of non-compulsory curricular activities for each class expressed as a percentage of the weekly compulsory curricular activities specified for a year in Sections (3)-(5) is the following:

a) ten per cent from years one to four,

b) twenty-five per cent from years five to six,

c) thirty per cent from years seven to eight,

d) forty-five per cent from years nine to ten,

e) sixty per cent from years eleven to thirteen,

f) five per cent in the year of vocational training.


Article 94

….

(3) The Government regulates by decree:

b) the introduction and issuance of the National Core Curriculum.



INDIA


ISRAEL

  1. - State Education Law, 1953

http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Owl/English/Legislation/Principal/STATE+EDUCATION+LAW.htm


This law determines guiding principles with regard to the content and procedures of State education and provides for a six-day school week.


State education is defined as education provided by the state on the basis of the curriculum approved by the Minister of Education, without attachment to a party, communal body, or other non-government organization, and is under the supervision of the Minister of Education. The law outlines the objectives of State education with regard to universal values; the values of Israel's society and heritage; remembrance of the Holocaust and heroism; development of the child’s personality, abilities and creativity; various disciplines of knowledge, science and the arts; physical activity; and culture and recreation.


The State education system consists of two trends: “State education,” and “State-religious education.”This law enables the Minister of Education to approve, at the request of 75 percent of the parents, an additional institutional curriculum comprising up to 25 percent of the existing curriculum, or an additional curriculum financed by the local authority or by the parents.


http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Owl/English/Organization/Primary/


The way in which the schedule is organized reflects the school’s policy, the focal points of the school-based curricula, and the differential response to pupils’ needs. Therefore, the schedule in the primary school is largely based on allocating units of flexible time, where different pupils will be occupied with different subjects or fields at the school’s discretion and in accordance with the various characteristics of its pupils.


Nevertheless, the school must ensure that over the course of the six years of study, 75% of the hours are allocated to teaching the basic curriculum using various approaches to knowledge, while the remaining 25% of the hours may be utilized freely as the school sees fit. The allocation of 75% of the school schedule to teaching the basic curriculum can be expressed by teaching each subject separately, or through an interdisciplinary approach that combines the methods of different teaching approaches. The remaining 25% of the schedule is intended to be used freely by the school for additional disciplines using either one or more of the approaches.


The basic curriculum is rooted in seven approaches to the world of knowledge and is divided into compulsory subjects and elective subjects, according to the different grade levels.


http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Owl/English/Organization/Secondary/


The secondary school system has begun a process of reorganizing the program and methods of study. Implementation of this reorganization was begun in grade 10 during the 2000 school year.


The new design features the following:


* A comprehensive concept of the secondary school, which represents an educational continuum from grade 7 through grade 12, and enables schools to employ flexible solutions over time.

  • Increased school autonomy, which is characterized by significantly expanding the freedom of choice offered to the schools, including the pupils, regarding subjects taught and learning methods.
  • Reducing the number of subjects that are learned at one time. In this way, the number of teachers a pupil encounters each week is also reduced, which enables more personalized teaching.
  • Increased independent work. This refers to developing independent learning skills, motivation for learning and intellectual curiosity among the pupils, while giving them an opportunity for more extensive study in their own fields of interest.
  • Clusters and interdisciplinary subjects. This program encourages secondary schools to reorganize their studies and schedules, and includes: studying separate disciplines, linking different subjects within the framework of a cluster or in other ways, selecting integrated fields and encouraging individual projects in various disciplines.
  • Alternative means of evaluation, in different fields of personal functioning, such as critical thinking, creativity, originality, ethical consideration and taking a stand with reference to others and society.
  • Centrality of the educational role of the homeroom teacher and a concept of the subject teacher as educator. Strengthening the status of the homeroom teacher, so that he can serve as a meaningful figure in the pupil’s life, as well as enhancing the intrinsic educational role of all the teachers.
  • Teamwork by the school’s teaching staff .Teamwork plays an important role in educational planning and teaching practice, within frameworks that combine different fields of knowledge when applying alternative methods of evaluation. Developing teamwork is essential in order to realize the reorganization within the secondary schools.


KAZAKHSTAN


The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Education”, 2007

http://nkaoko.kz/documents/law_of_education/


Article 5. The competence of the authorized body in the field of education

6) organize the development and approve state educational standards (except for medical and pharmaceutical education) of the respective levels of education, according to standard educational curricula and model curricula at all levels of education;


Article 14. The educational curriculum

1. The educational curriculum based on the content and direction (purpose) are classified as:

1) general education (standard, workers);

2) professional (standard, workers);

3) additional.

Typical general education and vocational training programs are developed in accordance with the requirements of the state compulsory education standards.

Operating general and vocational training programs are developed on the basis of the model curricula.

4. Educational training programs provide additional education to create the conditions for the development of personal self-determination and creativity of students, the realization of their abilities to adapt to life in society, the formation of civic identity, common culture, a healthy lifestyle, the meaningful leisure activities.

5. To test the new learning technologies, the introduction of a new curriculum being developed experimental educational training programs implemented in educational institutions operating in the mode of the experiment (experimental sites).



Article 25. Experimental educational curricula

Experimental educational training programs are aimed at testing of new learning technologies, the introduction of the new curriculum.


KOSOVO


Law 04/L-032/2011 on Pre-university Education in the Republic of Kosovo

http://www.masht-gov.net/advCms/documents/1_Ligji_per_arsimin_Parauniversitar.pdf


Article 24


Kosovo Curriculum Framework


1. Ministry through the Kosovo Agency for Curriculum, Standards and Assessment (AKKSV), designs Kosovo Curriculum Framework (CCC).

2. Representatives of all communities should be involved in the development or review of the CCC.

3. CCC consists of core curriculum and school-based curriculum for each level of education and sets learning areas.

4. CCC serves as a basis for creating curricula subject.

5. Ministry, AKKSV, municipalities, the Board and a director of educational and training institution exercise their respective functions under this law in order to ensure that the Curriculum Framework Kosovo, adheres to the following principles: education and quality education for all, all included, competency-based approach, flexibility and mobility, transparency and accountability and lifelong learning as well:

5.1. promotes the intellectual, moral, cultural and natural learners and society;

5.2. prepares students for the opportunities and responsibilities for successful life and work;

5.3. defines the knowledge, skills and values ​​by level of education expressed in core competencies;

5.4. promotes a spirit of respect, understanding and tolerance among all communities.

6. Through this legal act for each level of university education, the Ministry specifies:

6.1. Content of the core curriculum, including curriculum subject, time sharing learning to core curriculum and the school, given that the curriculum school-based does not exceed 20% of the total;

6.2. teaching one or more official languages ​​of the Republic of Kosovo from all students, including students from minority communities who do not learn in one of the languages official;

7. Under the provisions of the Education Act in the municipality, no. 03/L-068, 21 May 2008, educational institutions, whether public or private, can not deviate from the core curriculum, except in:

7.1. special circumstances with the permission of the Ministry, issued after consultation with AKKSV-in;

7.2. with the approval of the Ministry, for the purposes of paragraph 11 innovative projects. Article 5 of this law, or

7.3. when the individual educational plan for a particular student is approved under paragraph 6. of

Article 41 of this Law.

8. CCC enables all students to increase knowledge about identity, culture and language of them, and encourages intercultural dialogue.

9. Within the school-based curriculum, educational institutions are free to hold any substance is not prohibited by law or other applicable laws.


Article 25


Kosovo Agency for Curriculum, Standards and Assessment


1. Kosovo Agency for Curriculum, Standards and Assessment (AKKSV) established as an agency to issues that have led involving the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation Curriculum, standards and assessment.

2. AKKSV is an executive agency that operates under the Ministry.

3. Status and AKKSV work regulated by bylaw.

4. AKKSV develops Kosovo Curriculum Framework and curriculum materials through a process regular discussion with teachers and representatives of municipalities, organizations representative of the community and with local and international experts, including recommendations for:

4.1. core curriculum content, including central and methodology curriculum subjects, objectives, learning outcomes for each subject related the main stages of the curriculum and core competencies to be achieved at the end of ISCED level 3's;

4.2. standardized measurement and evaluation of the success of students in defined intervals and criteria for the progress of students who are in compliance with the terms of the National Qualifications for evaluation leading to the award of qualifications;

4.3. list of recommended textbooks and other teaching resources, including materials suitable for use by students who have learning disabilities or those with disabilities limited.

LATVIA


Education Law 1998

http://izm.izm.gov.lv/normativie-akti/likumi/912.html


Section 15. The competence of the Ministry of Education

The Ministry of Education:

.

3) develops and updates the educational institutions, educational programs and teachers' records;

.

11) develops national education standards compliant subjects or courses (except higher education programs) samples;


Section 33. Education programs


(1) The curriculum of schools the educational activity of a regulatory act which according to educational level, type of education, population and national education standards are set:

1) education program goals, objectives and expected results;

2) requirements for previously acquired education;

3) educational content as a single subject or course contents;

4) educational program implementation plan;

5) education programs for the implementation of the manpower, financial and material resources, an assessment according to the Regulation on the implementation of educational programs cost a minimum of one student.

(2) Educational programs in accordance with state education standards and norms developed by the education authority, in coordination with its founder.

(3) educational program accredited in the Cabinet of Ministers within two years from the start of the day and at least once every six years.


Section 34. Subjects or courses


(1) The subjects of study or course syllabi may be developed or selected by educators implementing such syllabi in accordance with the curriculum.

(2) The subjects of study or training courses approved by the head.


LITHUANIA


Law on Education of the Republic of Lithuania (amended 2011)

http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=407836


Article 9. Primary education


1. The purpose of primary education shall be to provide an individual with the basics of moral and social maturity, the basics of culture (including ethnic culture) and with elementary literacy, as well as to assist him in preparing for learning according to the basic education curriculum.

2. Primary education shall be carried out pursuant to four-year primary education curricula. The said curricula shall be implemented in compliance with the Description of the Primary Education Curriculum, the General Curriculum Framework for Primary Education, general teaching plans which are approved by the Minister of Education and Science. Primary education may be carried out together with art, music, artistic, sports or other education.

3. Education of a child according to the primary education curriculum shall start that calendar year when he turns seven years of age. In a separate case a child who turns seven years of age in that calendar year and who needs permanent assistance of qualified specialists as well as health caring day’s routine, at the request of the parents (guardians) he may, in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Minister of Education and Science, be educated for one year at a pre-school education establishment or at home according to the curriculum adapted to his special educational needs

4. At the request of the parents (guardians), in compliance with the Outline of the Procedure for Assessing the Child’s Maturity to Follow the Pre-School and Pre-Primary Preparatory Education Curricula approved by the Minister of Education and Science, the provision of primary education may start one year earlier than the age specified in paragraph 3 of this Article.

5. Primary education curricula shall be carried out by general education schools and other schools or any other education provider.

6. Upon completion of the primary education curriculum, the primary education shall be acquired.


Article 10. Basic education


1. The purpose of basic education shall be to provide an individual with the basics of moral, sociocultural and civic maturity, general literacy, the basics of technological literacy, to cultivate national consciousness, to foster an intent and ability to make decisions and choices and to continue learning.

2. Basic education shall be provided to learners who have acquired the primary education.

3. Basic education shall be carried out pursuant to six-year basic education curricula. The first part of the basic education curricula shall encompass four-year basic education phase and the second part - two-year basic education phase. Basic education curricula shall be implemented in compliance with the Description of the Basic Education Curriculum, the General Curriculum Framework for Basic Education, general teaching plans approved by the Minister of Education and Science. The second part of basic education curricula may include modules of vocational training programmes which will be credited when continuing learning in compliance with vocational training programmes in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Minister of Education and Science. Basic education may be carried out together with art, music, artistic, sports or other education.

4. Basic education shall be acquired upon completion of the basic education curriculum and check of his learning achievements, with the exception of cases where a person is exempted from the check of learning achievements in the cases set out by the Minister of Education and Science.


Article 11. Secondary education


1. The purpose of secondary education shall be to assist a person in the acquisition of general academic, sociocultural and technological literacy, moral, national and civic maturity, and the basics of vocational competence.

2. State-guaranteed universally available secondary education shall be provided to learners who have acquired the basic education.

3. Secondary education shall be carried out pursuant to two-year secondary education curricula. The said curricula shall consist of compulsory and elective subjects of general education and available modules of vocational training programmes. Basic education curricula shall be implemented in compliance with the Description of the Secondary Education Curriculum, the General Curriculum Framework for Secondary Education, general teaching plans approved by the Minister of Education and Science. Secondary education may be carried out together with art, music, artistic, sports or other education. If the secondary education curriculum is carried out together with the vocational training programme, both curricula may be carried out longer than two years.

4. Modules of vocational training programmes may be credited into the secondary education curriculum if continuing learning in compliance with vocational training programmes in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Minister of Education and Science.

5. Secondary education shall be acquired upon completion of the secondary education curriculum and passing of matura examinations, with the exception of cases where a person is excused from matura examinations in the cases set out by the Minister of Education and Science.


Article 56. Powers of the Ministry of Education and Science


The Ministry of Education and Science shall be empowered:

….

7) to organize and coordinate accreditation of general education curricula;

12) to approve criteria for pre-school education curricula, a general pre-primary education curriculum, general education, teaching content of formal education (descriptions of primary, basic, secondary curricula, teaching plans) approved by the Minister of Education and Science; criteria for accreditation of secondary education curricula and the description of implementation of the procedure thereof; general criteria for non-formal education programmes of the teaching supplementing the formal education, funded from state or municipal budgets, approved by the Minister of Education and Science.


MALTA


Education Act – as at 2010

http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=8801&l=1


7. It shall be the right of the State -

(a) to establish a National Curriculum Framework ofstudies for all schools;

(b) to establish the national minimum conditions for allschools; and

© to secure compliance with the National CurriculumFramework of studies and the national minimumconditions for all schools.


47. (1) Subject to the provisions of subarticle (2), it shall be the duty of the Minister, after receiving the proposals and the advice of the entities established by this Act, and after consultation with whosoever is involved in the development of the country, to establish the framework of the national curriculum both for State schools and for non-State schools at compulsory educational level and it shall be the duty of all schools to accomplish this curriculum according to the potential and the various skills of students attending thereat and according to the ethos, the identity and the character of the particular school or College.

(2) The Minister shall monitor the curricular activity of the educational Directorates and of every College and school and has a right to request any data and report and to take such measures as may result to be required in order to ensure that school teaching is being imparted according to the philosophy, vision, strategy, principles, objectives, standards, and bench-marks established by the curriculum.


MOLDOVA

  1. - Education Law 547-XIII/1995

http://www.observator.ipp.md/RO/Legi%20si%20Hotariri/Legea%20Invatamintului%20Rom.html


Article 38. The content of education


(1) The content of education is projected based on state educational standards, has a functional and formative character and is phased in levels and stages.


(2) The content of undergraduate education at various levels and stages is ensured by syllabi and curricula approved by the Ministry of Education and Science.


(3) The syllabi and curricula, textbooks and other teaching materials for state-based education institutions are developed through competition and implemented after coordination with the ministries and departments concerned and approved by the Ministry of Education. In the education units alternative programs and textbooks can be used, whose contents must ensure the achievement of state educational standards.


(4) The syllabi and curricula for secondary vocational education are elaborated by the Ministry of Education together with other ministries and departments, taking into account the proposals of secondary vocational education institutions and the stakeholders, and are approved by the Ministry of Education, regardless of the subordination of the education institutions.


(5) The syllabi for all levels of training include compulsory, optional and elective subjects. Optional and elective subjects’ weight increases in the final grades of secondary education.


(6) The syllabi for secondary specialized educational institutions are approved by the Ministry of Education and concerned ministries in coordination with specialized departments of higher education institutions. Curricula are developed by specialized secondary educational institutions and approved by the respective departments of higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education.


(7) The syllabi for higher education institutions are approved by the university senate, in agreement with the Ministry of Education, in accordance with state educational standards. Curricula are developed by departments and approved by the university senate, under favorable opinion of the faculty council.


MONTENEGRO


Law in Primary Education 2003

http://www.mpin.gov.me/en/library/zakoni?alphabet=lat&pagerIndex=3


The educational curriculum


Article 12

Primary education shall be delivered on the basis publicly valid of the curriculum for primary schools (hereinafter: the educational curriculum).

The educational curriculum shall establish compulsory subjects, compulsory optional subjects, optional subjects, free activities and the lessons of class community.

The manner of application and implementation of educational curricula shall be regulated by a regulation of the Ministry.


The Compulsory Subjects


Article 13

The Ministry shall define compulsory subjects in public or private institutions, on the proposal of Council for General Education.


The Optional Subjects


Article 14

Schools are in obligation to offer the teaching in five compulsory optional subjects, at least, to pupils in the third cycle, in line with the educational curriculum, where one of them is foreign language.

Pupils shall decide on optional subjects referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

The Ministry shall decide on the list of compulsory optional subjects and their contents, on the basis of the proposal of the Council for General Education.

The school shall submit proposal for list of compulsory optional subjects.


Extra and Remedial Teaching


Article 15

Schools are in obligation to organize the remedial teaching for the pupils that lag behind in the acquisition of teaching contents.

Schools shall organize extra teaching for the pupils with extremely high level of success in the process of the adoption of teaching contents and who show a special interest in the broadening and the strengthening of knowledge in the specific fields of teaching and education.


Extended Curriculum


Article 16

Schools are in obligation to organize, within their potential, the extended curriculum for the pupils.

The extended curriculum shall include the prolonged stay, morning guard, free activities, optional teaching and outdoor teaching.

Exceptionally to paragraph 1 of this Article, schools are in obligation to organize the morning guard for the pupils of the first grade.


The Prolonged Stay


Article 17

Schools shall organized the prolonged stay for the pupils, in line with their potential.

Pupils shall be provided with the guarding within the prolonged stay, during which various sports and culture and art activities shall be performed, the learning, doing the homework and the completion of other duties, in line with the rules of the school.


Optional teaching


Article 18

Schools may organize optional teaching in particular subjects, in line with this Law.

Optional teaching shall be compulsory for all pupils that have chosen it.

Marks in optional subjects shall not influence the general success of pupils.


Outdoors activities


Article 19

Schools shall develop various forms of free activities – outdoors activities (sports, cultural and art activities).

The school annual plan shall establish free activities.


Class Community


Article 20

Pupils, together with their Class Master shall discuss the matters of the interest for the pupils and their school at the class community lessons.



Law on High School 2003

http://www.mpin.gov.me/en/library/zakoni?alphabet=lat&pagerIndex=3


Article 17

The teaching shall be executed in line with the educational curriculum.

Compulsory, optional subjects, or the groups of subjects and the compulsory optional contents shall be studied within the framework of educational curriculum.

Theoretical teaching in the field of compulsory subjects shall be executed with students of one class of a same grade.

General educational and professional subjects, as well as classic languages, depending on the type of high schools, shall be studied within the framework of compulsory subjects.

The organization and the execution of theoretical teaching in the optional subjects, or in the groups of subjects, shall be defined by high school itself.

The list of compulsory optional subjects shall be adopted by the Ministry at the proposal of the Council for General Education.

The practices, as the functional application of the adopted theoretical contents, shall be executed in groups.

The compulsory optional contents may be executed in high schools and out of them.

The teaching subjects may be studied both at standard and higher level, in line with the educational curriculum.



NEPAL



PAKISTAN


POLAND


Education Law, as amended in 2009

http://www.men.gov.pl/images/stories/pdf/Reforma/tekst_ustawy.pdf


Article 2a

The school system supports non-governmental organizations, including organizations, scouts, and legal person incorporated in the field of education.


Article 22a

1. The teacher has the right to choose the manual of textbooks approved for use in schools.

2. Teacher presents to the school head or preschool program curriculum. School Director, in consultation with school board, allows for use in the school proposed by the teacher of preschool education program or curriculum.

2b. Approved for use in a given school or preschool programs education programs are adequately set of pre-school programs or set school curricula. The school head is responsible for including in all appropriate pre-school core curriculum and the basis the general education curriculum established for a given stage of education, in the case schools providing training in occupations or training profiles for general professional - the total core curriculum training in the profession or the curriculum education in the general professional educational profile.

2e. The head teacher shall publish, by 15 June, a set of textbooks, which will apply from the beginning of next school year.

3. The minister responsible for education, in the case of textbooks to schools arts minister responsible for culture and national heritage, by administrative decision, it is permissible for school textbooks and manuals accordingly to art schools.

4. Manual may be approved for use in schools, if received positive feedback experts indicated respectively by the minister responsible for education and education or the minister responsible for culture and national heritage of the experts listed on the list of experts led by the ministers.

5. An applicant for an authorization manual for school pays a fee.

7. The minister responsible for education and the minister responsible for culture and national heritage, through an administrative decision, may revoke the authorization for school use the program or the manual:

1) at the request of the entity that holds legal title to the program or textbook;

2) from the office - where at least two experts referred to in paragraph. 4, finds that the program or user manual lost the timeliness or usefulness of teaching, or from exhaustion of the effort gone 3 years and is not expected to resume publication.

8. The minister responsible for education and for teaching and textbooks for the schools of art - the minister responsible for culture and heritage nation shall determine, by regulation:

1) detailed conditions to be met by programs and textbooks authorized for use school, and the conditions for teachers to create their own programs;

2) detailed terms and procedure of admission for school programs and textbooks, and revoking;

3) the conditions to be met by the persons entered on the list of experts, and the conditions and procedure remove from the list;

4) the amount and manner of payment of fees in the procedure for authorization of the school program or manual, and the conditions of remuneration experts.

9. Regulation referred to in paragraph. 8, should specifically consider:

1) to take into account in curricula and textbooks of teaching content contained in the basics software;

2) possession by higher education experts and experience in scientific work or teaching;

3) institutions whose opinion is required when applying for inclusion on the list of experts;

4) providing lists of programs and textbooks approved for school use;

7. The minister responsible for education, in the case of textbooks for art schools minister responsible for culture and national heritage, in administrative decision, may revoke the authorization of the school handbook:

1) at the request of the entity that holds legal title to the book;

2) from the office - where at least two experts referred to in paragraph. 4, finds that the book lost its timeliness or usefulness of teaching, or from exhaustion of the effort gone 3 years and is not expected to resume publication.

8. The minister responsible for education and for programs and textbooks to schools of arts minister responsible for culture and heritage nation, determines, by regulation:

1) detailed terms and mode of entry into service in the school programs preschool education and teaching programs by the school;

2) detailed conditions to be met textbooks authorized for use in schools;

3) detailed terms and procedure of admission of textbooks for school use;

4) the conditions to be met by the persons entered on a list of experts, and the conditions and mode to remove from the list;

5) the amount and manner of payment of fees in the proceedings for admission to the service manual school, and the conditions of remuneration experts.

9th Regulation referred to in paragraph. 8, should provide for to take into account the content of teaching manuals contained in the basics curriculum and include:

1) ensure that preschool education programs and curricula of curricular content contained in the core curriculum;

2) possession by appraisers of higher education and work experience research or teaching;

3) institutions whose recommendation is required when applying for inclusion on the list appraisers;

4) providing lists of textbooks approved for school use;

5) the amount of fees paid for admission to the proceedings handbook for use school, with the possibility of differentiation of charges according to the type of man and education stage, to which they are intended.


Article 45

1. When the minister responsible for education may operate the National Council Education, hereinafter referred to as the “National Council”, which is a consultative body in matters of education.

2. The National Council makes the minister in charge of education at the request of provincial educational councils representing at least 1/4 provinces.

3. National Council:

1) prepare and submit to the minister responsible for education projects assumptions State educational policy, including proposals for participation in expenditures for education in national income is divided;

2) advise on the budget bill in the section on education and of its opinion relevant committees of the Sejm and Senate;

3) advise on criteria for allocation of resources at the disposal of the minister responsible for education and education, devoted to education;

4) advise on the concept of education, including master plans for teaching and scope of existing curricula;

5) advise on draft legislation on education;

6) advise on other matters concerning education, presented by the Minister responsible for education.

4. The National Council may be present with the proposals on education matters directly to the supreme and central organs of government administration.


Article 46 1 The National Council consists of representatives of the provincial educational councils, and one from each provincial council, and one representative of the central structures of the compounds professional associations of teachers.

2. The term of office of the National Council shall be 3 years.

3. The National Council shall adopt its rules of its operations and elect a chairman.

4. The National Council may appoint standing and ad hoc committees.

5. The administrative service of the National Council provides the minister responsible for education and education.


Article 55

1. The school and the institution the student works, hereinafter called “government”.

2. Government make all the students the school or institution.

3. Principles of operation of selection and self-determined in the regulations be adopted by general students in a vote equal, secret and universal. Local authorities are the only representatives of all pupils.

4. Terms government can not be inconsistent with the Statute of the school or institution.

5. Local government council may submit to the school or institution, pedagogical council and Director of the conclusions and opinions in all matters of school or institution, in particular the realization of basic rights of students, such as:

1) The right to read the curriculum, with its content, purpose and posed requirements;

2) the right to open and reasoned assessment of progress in learning and behavior;

3) The right to organize school life, to preserve the balance between the academic effort and ability to develop and meet their own interests;

4) the right to edit and issue of the school newspaper;

5) The right to organize cultural, educational, sports and entertainment as their individual needs and organizational capacity, in consultation with the Director;

6) The right to choose the teacher acting as a guardian of local government.

6. The minister in charge of education shall, by regulation, the types of schools and institutions, which does not form a student government because of the need use in a special school or institution of science organization and working methods, and reasons education, care and rehabilitation.

7. Government school or institution for adult education, to support statutory activities of the school or institution may raise funds through voluntary contributions and other sources. Principles of spending those funds defined in the regulations referred to in paragraph 3.


ROMANIA


Education Law 1/2011

http://www.dreptonline.ro/legislatie/legea_educatiei_nationale_lege_1_2011.php


Article 65

(1) Framework Plans include educational disciplines, fields of study, namely mandatory and optional training modules, and minimum and maximum number of hours associated with them.

(2) The common core consists of compulsory disciplines / fields of study / training modules, while the school optional curriculum consists of optional subjects / fields of study / training modules.

(3) School curricula establish, for each discipline, field of study / training module, the objective pursued and highlight the fundamental contents of theoretical, experimental and applied, providing general methodological guidelines for implementation and evaluation.

(4) Framework Plans and School curricula for compulsory disciplines / fields of study / training modules are developed by the competent institutions and agencies of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and approved by order of the minister of education, research, youth and sport.

(5) School optional curriculum consists of both optional packages offered nationally, regionally and locally, and optional packages offered by the school. The administrative Board of the education unit, following consultation with students, parents and based on available resources, establish the school optional curriculum.

(6) Curricula for optional disciplines / fields of study / training modules are developed at the school level, in consultation with council staff, advisory board of students, parents association and local community representatives and, if necessary, the operators that the education has relations with for the practical training of students. Curricula are approved by the board of the school.

(7) For alternative education, Framework and curriculum plans are developed, in a project, by their representatives and are approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.


Article 66

(1) Number of hours allocated to subjects in the framework plans are up to 20 hours per week at primary school, 25 hours per week at secondary school and 30 hours per week in high school. These hours are devoted to both teaching and evaluation, as well as learning in class, assisted by the teacher, of the content taught, according to this law.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of par. (1), the maximum number of hours may be exceeded by the number of hours provided for the study of native history and traditions of national minorities and bilingual education.

(3) As part of the National Curriculum, compulsory subjects account for 80% in the Framework Plans for compulsory education and 70% in those at high school level.

(4) As part of the National Curriculum, optional subjects have a 20% share in the Framework Plans for compulsory education and 30% in those at high school level.

(5) For each discipline and field of study the curriculum covers 75% of the daily teaching and assessment, leaving 25% of the time dedicated to the discipline / field of study available to the teachers. Depending on the characteristics of students and his school strategy the teacher decides whether the 25% of the time is used for remedial learning, for children with special needs, to enhance knowledge or to stimulate students with superior performance, according to individual learning plans developed for each student.


RUSSIA


Education Law


Article 28. The powers of the federal bodies of state authority in the field of education

The authority of the federal government in education includes:

19) information and scientific methodological support of the education system, working within its competence, the basic curriculum and sample programs, courses, subjects, and subjects (modules), textbooks and teaching aids. Creating a unified system for the Russian Federation for Information in Education;


Article 32. Competence and responsibility of educational institutions

….

2. The competence of educational institutions are:

1) the logistics and equipment of the educational process, equipment, premises in accordance with state and local regulations and requirements, carried out within their own funds;

2) attraction for the implementation of activities under the charter of an educational institution, additional financial and material resources, including the use of non-state educational institution of bank credit;

3) provision of the founder and the public an annual report on the receipt and expenditure of financial and material resources, as well as a report on the results of self-education institutions;

4) The selection, hiring and placement, the responsibility for their qualifications;

5) the use and improvement of the educational process and techniques of educational technology, including e-learning, distance learning technologies;

6) The development and approval of educational programs and curricula;

7) development and approval of work programs, courses, subjects, subjects (modules);

8) development and approval in consultation with local government annual calendar of training schedules;

9) establish the structure of management of the educational establishment, staffing, allocation of duties;

10) the establishment of wages of employees of educational institutions, including allowances and bonuses to official salary, and about the size of their bonuses;

12) development and adoption of the charter group of educational institutions to make it for approval;

13) the development and adoption of internal regulations of the educational institutions and other local acts;

14) the formation of a separate contingent of students and pupils within the stipulated quota of the license, unless otherwise provided in standard position on the educational institution of the type and kind, and this Act;

15), an independent implementation of the educational process in accordance with the charter of an educational institution, the license and certificate of state accreditation;

16) The implementation of performance monitoring and evaluation of intermediate students of educational institutions in accordance with its charter and the requirements of this Act;

18) provision of an educational institution providing residential living conditions of students not below standard;

19) the creation of an educational institution the necessary conditions for subdivisions catering and medical facilities, control of their work to protect and promote the health of pupils, students and employees of educational institutions;

20) To promote the activities of teaching (teaching) organizations (associations) and the teaching unions;

21) coordination of an educational institution of the public (including children and youth) organizations (associations) are not prohibited by law;

22) other activities not prohibited by the laws of the Russian Federation and under the charter of an educational institution;

23) define a list of textbooks in accordance with approved federal lists of books, recommended or approved for use in the educational process in a state-accredited educational programs, and implementing the general education of educational institutions, as well as textbooks approved for use in the educational process in such educational institutions;

24) the operation of the internal monitoring of the quality of education at an educational institution;

25) Ensure the establishment and maintenance of the official website of the educational institutions on the Internet.


SERBIA


The Law on Education System 2009

http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Serbia/Serbia_Law_fundamentals_education_system_cs.pdf


The jurisdiction of the National Education Council


Article 14

In the field of development and improvement of the Education System National Education Council:

1) monitor and analyze the state of education at all levels within their jurisdiction and harmonization of the education system with European principles and values;

2) determine the directions of development and improvement of preschool, primary and secondary general and artistic education;

3) participate in the preparation of educational strategies based on established routes development of preschool, primary and secondary general and artistic Education;

4) review, take a position and give an opinion in the Ministry adoption of laws and regulations, regulating the issues of importance the field of education;

5) determine:

(1) general and specific standards of achievement;

(2) competency standards for the profession of teacher educators and their professional development;

(3) standards of competence of directors;

(4) standards of quality textbooks and teaching materials;

(5) standards requirements for the implementation of special programs in the area preschool education;

(6) the quality standards of the institution;

6) pass: the basics of preschool education, curricula of primary and secondary general and artistic Education, part of the curriculum of secondary vocational education and adult education for general subjects and basic educational programs;

7) sets out a proposal: the final examination of basic education and education, general and artistic mature, in accordance with this special law;

8) determine the need for new textbooks, the plan textbooks and recommends approval of the Minister of textbooks and teaching funding for preschool, primary and secondary general and artistic Education, general subjects of vocational education and adult education;

9) make recommendations for education and further training of teachers, educators and professionals in charge of the council development issues higher education;

10) provides consultation and obtain the opinion of representatives of relevant socially marginalized groups, and perform other duties in accordance with the law.


Institute for the Advancement of Education


Article 18

Institute for the Advancement of Education carry out professional activities in field of education and participating in drafting regulations under the jurisdiction Ministry, the National Education Council, the Council for Education and adult education and other activities in accordance with the law, the founding and statute.

Department under paragraph 1 this article consists of organizational units - centers, namely:

1) Centre for Development of curricula and textbooks;

2) Center for Vocational and Adult Education;

3) Center for Professional Development in Education.

Department under paragraph 1 this article may have a separate organizational unit education issues of national minorities and other organizational units, in accordance with the statute.


Centre for Development of Curriculum and Textbooks


Article 19

Institute for the Advancement of Education, at the Centre for Development programs and textbooks perform professional activities, in particular, relate to:

1) Preparation of standards:

(1) the quality of textbooks and teaching materials;

(2) conditions for implementation of special programs in the area preschool education;

2) Preparation:

(1) the basis of pre-school education;

(2) the curricula of primary, secondary general and art education;

(3) the basis of the curriculum;

(4) of the curriculum of vocational education and education and adult education for the general subjects;

3) preparing for preschool and elementary education abroad;

4) prepare a plan of textbooks of primary and secondary general and artistic education and participation in preparing textbooks general subjects of vocational education and adult education;

5) expert evaluations of textbooks of primary and secondary general and arts education, general education subjects vocational education and adult education;

6) other duties in accordance with this Law and the founding act.


Educational programs of institutions


Article 69

Preschool programs developed and implemented education children, in accordance with the basis of pre-school education and special law.

Primary school curriculum is realized, and may seek: individual educational plan for children and adults with disabilities, individual program Serbian language or languages ​​of national minorities for students who do not know the language where the instruction, the school curriculum for music and ballet education, school program for adult education, educational program for students in the school

home and other programs, in accordance with the law.

High school achieved the general curriculum, professionals and artists education, and may seek: individual educational plan for students and adults with disabilities, an individual program of the Serbian language or languages minority of students who do not know the language of instruction, school curriculum for music and ballet education, school education program adult educational program for students in the school house, and program specialist master of education program of education for work, vocational Training, training and other programs, in accordance with the law.

Exceptionally, an elementary school may seek pre-school program, and the mean School - preschool program, a program of primary education and upbringing the program.

In addition to programs in st. First to 4 This member institution may engage in other programs and activities aimed at improving the educational work, increase the quality and accessibility of education.

The institution referred to in paragraph 5 This article may acquire the status of the model center.


The curricula of primary and secondary education


Article 72

The curriculum is the basis for the adoption of the curriculum in Primary and Secondary Education.

The curriculum shall be in accordance with established principles, goals and standards of achievement. The curriculum three years of secondary vocational education has, at least 30 percent overall and 65 percent of vocational education, a curriculum four-year vocational and art education includes at least 40 percent general and 55 percent of professional and artistic education.

The curriculum includes subjects in levels and types of education of which the student must choose one or more objects according to their preferences.

One of the mandatory elective religious education and civics.

A student who has opted for one of two subjects, religious instruction or civic education, elective courses may not change during the primary cycle, or until the completion of secondary education.


The curricula of primary and secondary education


Article 73

The curricula of primary and secondary education include:

1) compulsory subjects by grade in primary and secondary education and education;

2) electives for grades in elementary and secondary education and education;

3) forms of educational work (regular, additional and supplementary education and other forms of educational work);

4) Annual and weekly number of hours per subject, and forms of educational work.

The curriculum of primary and secondary education may include modules, stand-alone or within the course, the number of classes.

Module, according to this law, is a set of theoretical and practical program content and form of functionally and thematically related to the subject or more cases.


The curricula of primary and secondary education


Article 74

The curriculum of primary and secondary education shall be made ​​in accordance with established general and specific standards of achievement and includes:

1) goals of education by level, cycles, types of education and educational attainment, educational goals and Education by subject, modules and classes;

2) mandatory and recommended content of compulsory and elective modules to secure the realization of the general outcomes and specific standards achievements;

3) recommended types of activities and ways to achieve the program;

4) suitably adjusting for adult education programs, students with exceptional abilities of subjects relevant to ethnic minority and bilingual education;

5) recommendations for the preparation of individual education plans for students who need additional educational support, which is delayed involved in the education process, who do not know the language of the realized educational work;

6) other issues of importance for the curriculum.


The school program


Article 76


Primary and secondary education, specialist and master education and other forms of professional education shall be exercised on the basis of school programs.

The school program shall be based on the curriculum and of certain forms of vocational education.

The school program provides a realization of the principles, objectives and standards achievement, according to the needs of students and parents, guardians and local communities.

The school program includes:

1) objectives of the curriculum;

2) name, type and duration of the program of education that schools achieved and the language of the program is implemented;

3) required and elective courses and modules, in cycles, and educational attainment and grades;

4) way of achieving the objectives and principles of education and standards of achievement, way of enforcement of the prescribed curriculum, other forms of vocational education and types of activities educational work;

5) optional subjects, their programming and activities which are realized;

6) ways to realize and adapt it to the music and ballet education, adult education, students with special skills and bilingual education;

7) other issues of importance to the school program.

School program brings the school board, by rule, every four years, the accordance with the curriculum.


Jurisdiction and procedure for adoption of the Education


Article 79

The basics of preschool education, curriculum and elementary and secondary general and artistic education, part of curriculum of general education subjects of vocational and adult education and basic educational programs, the proposal Minister, by the National Council of Education.

The curriculum of adult basic education by obtaining to the National Education Council, on motion of Council for Vocational Education and Adult Education, the Minister.

Part of the curriculum of vocational education and adult education, the proposal of the Council for Vocational Training and Education adults, the Minister.

For primary and secondary education for members national minorities on the proposal of the national council of national minorities and opinions National Education Council, the Minister.

Programs and master's education specialist, obtained by opinions of relevant ministries, the proposal of the Council for Education and Adult Education, the Minister.

Programs of other forms of vocational education at the proposal of the Council for Vocational and Adult Education, the Minister.


SLOVAKIA


Education Act 2008

http://www.uips.sk/sub/uips.sk/images/PKvs/z245_2008.pdf


§ 6 - State educational programs


(1) State educational programs must define the content of education in schools under this Act to acquire skills. State educational programs and publishes the issue Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic (hereinafter the “Ministry of Education”).

(2) State educational programs for training issued by the Ministry of Education consultation with employers, schools and their founders and professional interest in zdruţeniami nationwide scope and ministries within their sectoral coverage; for medical courses preparing pupils for the performance of the medical profession 6) issues such programs Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic (hereinafter the “Ministry of Health”).

(3) State educational programs for vocational training in schools under other central government issued the central state administration bodies in matters general subjects, in agreement with the Ministry of Education.

(4) State educational programs include

a) name of the educational program, which is also the name of the department of education, in secondary vocational schools and the name of the training,

b) the specific objectives of education, which are in accordance with § 4,

c) level of education to be obtained by completing an educational program or a comprehensive section

d) graduate profile,

e) the educational,

f) the characteristics of training, the length of the, form of education and conditions candidate recruitment,

g) educational standards,

h) forms of practical training,

i) framework curricula

j) the language of instruction pursuant to § 12,

k) organizational conditions for education in various forms of education according to § 54;

l) the manner, conditions for termination of education and the issue of proof of acquired education,

m) required staffing,

n) required to material-technical and spatial provision,

o) conditions to ensure the safety and health education and training,

p) and the specific conditions for the education of children and pupils with special educational needs, in particular materials and personnel, including special compensation, rehabilitation, teaching and audiovisual equipment needs a view of the species and degree of disability,

q) principles and conditions for the development of school educational programs.

(5) State educational programs under paragraph 4 of the medical fields of study include the The requirement of medical fitness in relation to the study.

(6) For the department of education is a public education program mandatory for

a) developing the school curriculum,

b) the development and assessment of textbooks, textbooks and workbooks,

c) evaluation of schools and for evaluating the results achieved by children or pupils.


§ 7 - School educational program


(1) The school curriculum is crucial to the school, according to which conducted education and training in schools under this Act.

(2) School educational program issued by the Director after consulting the school board in teaching Schools and school board, school educational programs for training and after consultation with employer or legal entity which has competence in vocational education and training under a separate regulation 6) (hereinafter referred to as “professional organization”). Founder It may have vyţiadať from the school educational program for school approval.

(3) The school curriculum must be developed in accordance with the principles and objectives of education and training under this Act and the relevant state training programs.

(4) The school curriculum includes

a) name of the educational program

b) define their own goals and mission of education,

c) level of education, which is achieved by passing the school curriculum or its a continuous part,

d) focus their own schools,

e) length of the study and forms of education,

f) curriculum

g) Curriculum,

h) the language of instruction pursuant to § 12,

i) the method, conditions for termination of education and the issue of proof of acquired education,

j) staffing,

k) material, technical and spatial conditions

l) the conditions to ensure the safety and health education and training,

m) internal control system and evaluation of children and pupils,

n) internal control system and evaluation of school staff,

o) Requirements for continuing education and professional teaching staff.

(5) Where school education included children with special educational needs or pupils with special educational needs, not to create conditions through individual educational program, or through educational programs for schools that educate children with special educational needs or pupils with special educational needs.

(6) school education programs It may also be an international program that done with the written consent of the Ministry of Education and is in accordance with the principles and objectives of education and training under this Act.

(7) Compatibility of the school curriculum with the state educational programs, objectives and principles of education laid down by this Act controls the State School Inspection.

(8) If the novozriaďovanú school, professional development of school curriculum ensured by school and attaches it to the request for inclusion of schools in the network of schools and school facilities under a special regulation.

(9) School curriculum published headmaster of a public place.


§ 8 - The educational program


(1) The educational program is the basic document of school facilities, according to which conducted an educational activity in schools referred to in § 113 and 120

(2) The educational program is issued and published by the school director or director of school facilities After discussion in the teaching of all schools or educational facilities of the school board, board school facility. The vyţiadanie approved educational program founder.

(3) The educational program must be developed in accordance with the principles and objectives of education and training under this Act.

(4) The educational program includes

a) name of the program

b) define their own goals and mission of education,

c) forms of education,

d) thematic areas of education,

e) educational program,

f) educational language

g) staffing,

h) material-spatial conditions

i) conditions to ensure the safety and health education;

j) internal control system and evaluation of children and pupils,

k) internal control system and staff evaluation of school facilities

l) Requirements for continuing training of teaching staff.

(5) Compliance with the program educational objectives and principles of education and training provided this Act controls the State School Inspection.

(6) If the newly established school facility, professional development education program school facility ensures the founder of the school facilities and attaches it to the request for inclusion school facilities in the network of schools and school facilities under a special regulation.

(7) The educational program is issued and published by the Director of the school facilities on publicly accessible site.

(8) If the school is part of a school education program develop, produce and publish headmaster.


§ 9 - Educational standards, curriculum, curriculum


(1) Educational standards include file poţiadaviek to learn the knowledge, skills and ability to get children and pupils to continue their education in the follow-up of educational program or that they could be granted the level of education under this Act.

(2) educational standards for children and pupils are divided into

a) performance standards that determine criteria for the level of mastering the knowledge, skills and abilities

b) content standards, which determine the extent of the required knowledge and skills.

(3) framework curricula are part of the state education programs include education and the list of compulsory and optional subjects with the definition minimum number of lessons across the curriculum or comprehensive parts. Framework curricula defined as follows týţdenného largest range of lessons in relevant year education program and the number of hours that school It may be use to their own focus of the school curriculum. Framework curricula are binding on development of curricula relevant school educational programs.

(4) are part of the curricula of school education programs and develops a framework the state education curriculum program by determining the total years of týţdenného number of lessons for the year of the school curriculum.

(5) curriculum as part of school education programs. It defines educational objectives, content and scope of learning objects according to the curriculum curriculum.

(6) The kinds and types of schools develop curriculum at least to the extent provided educational standards of the national curriculum.

(7) adjustment range of curricula and the curriculum must be consistent with príslušným educational standards.


§ 10 - Educational standards, educational plans, educational curriculum


(1) Educational standards include file poţiadaviek to learn the knowledge, skills and ability to get children to be able to build on the knowledge, skills and abilities gained in educational activities at school.

(2) The educational standards for children are divided into

a) performance standards that determine criteria for the level of mastering content standards,

b) content standards that define what knowledge, skills and ability to have children know and to use the practice.

(3) Educational plans list the areas of education defining the minimum number lessons throughout the educational program, or complex parts.

(4) Educational plans are part of educational programs and determine the overall composition education department and educational group for the year educational program.

(5) The educational curriculum as part of educational programs. Defines educational objectives, content and extent of the areas education according to their educational goal.

(6) The school facilities develop educational curricula at least to the extent established educational standards.

(7) adjustment range educational plans and develop educational curricula must be in accordance with príslušným educational standards.


§ 11 - Educational documentation and other documentation


(1) Pedagogical Documentation school or school facility is a set of written documents governing the process of education, and file documents according to which issued by the school or school facility deeds and decisions.

(2) Pedagogical documentation in schools and school facilities in the state leads language. The schools and school facilities pursuant to this Act, which takes place training and education in minority languages, the school's documentation leads bilingually, in the official language and language of national minorities.

(3) teaching aids are

a) curricula,

b) educational plans,

c) curriculum

d) educational curriculum,

e) educational standards,

f) the educational standards

g) Class book

h) a statement of class,

i) Data Sheet of the child,

j) Data Sheet of pupils,

k) the child's personal file,

l) personal file pupils,

m) report of baccalaureate,

n) report for the final examination,

o) Protocol on the discharge

p) protocols for commission trials

q) a daily record of school facilities

r) the timetable,

s) Protocol on the state exam,

t) school rules the school,

u) school rules the school facilities

v) plan educational activities,

w) school work,

x) work of the school facilities

y) daily educational groups,

z) thematic educational plans of teaching subjects.

(4) school's documentation or educational institution referred to in paragraph 3. a) at f) issued by the Ministry of Education. Pedagogical documentation of church schools and school facilities established state-recognized church or religious society (“the church school Device”) and private schools and school facilities established by a natural person or other legal entity (hereinafter “private school facility”) referred to in paragraph 3. a) to d) issued by the founder of the written consent of the Ministry of Education.

(5) school's documentation or educational institution referred to in paragraph 3. g) at s) is conducted using the standard form approved and published by the Ministry of Education.

(6) Documentation of Education school or school facility is part of the registry under a special regulation.

….


§ 159 - Curricular Council


Curricular Council is a professional, initiative and advisory body to the Minister of Education key areas of education, especially in the innovation content of education supply and distribution of education and training of new training, educational reform and evaluation of new models.


SLOVENIA


Education Act

http://sharepoint.os-fmalgaja.si/starsi/Zakonodaja/Zakon%20o%20osnovni%20%C5%A1oli.pdf


14th Article (Elementary School)

The program includes a compulsory primary education program and an expanded program (hereinafter referred elementary school curriculum).


15th Article (Mandatory program)

Compulsory curriculum includes compulsory subjects, optional subjects and homeroom periods communities.


16th Article (Compulsory subjects)

Elementary schools for all students out instruction in the following compulsory subjects: Slovenian and Italian or Hungarian in ethnically mixed areas, foreign language, history, society, geography, patriotic and civic culture and ethics, mathematics, science, learning about the environment, science and technology, chemistry, biology, physics, visual arts, music, sports, art and technology, and households. For students with special needs, who specialize in tailored training program equivalent educational standards, school addition to compulsory subjects in the first paragraph of this article carried in special-educational activities provided by the curriculum.


17th Article (Electives)

In addition to compulsory subjects, elementary school pupils of the 7th, 8th and 9 class to implement instruction in elective courses. The school must provide instruction in at least three elective courses in social sciences humanities, and at least three of scientific-technical complex. The social sciences and humanities, the school must offer a foreign language, secular instruction about religion and ethics and rhetoric. The learner selects three hours of elective courses a week, but also four hours if his parents have given their consent.


18th Article (Compulsory and optional courses in the adapted program with lower educational standards)

Primary school for pupils with special needs, who specialize in tailored educational program with lower educational standards implemented instruction in the following inform various objects: Slovene, Italian and Hungarian in nationally mixed areas, foreign language, fine arts, musical arts, mathematics, engineering and technology, home economics, science, learning about the environment, social sciences and sports.

The school has implemented a special-educational activities provided by the curriculum.

In addition to compulsory courses for primary school students 7, 8 and 9 class, which are oriented educational program tailored to lower educational standards, implement instruction in elective courses.

The school offers instruction in at least one elective course in social sciences humanities, and a lot of science.

The learner selects one hour of instruction per week elective course.


Article 18a (Special education program)


With special education programs are determined by the education areas and electives.


19th Article (Class communities)

For hours of class community students with class teachers deal with issues associated with the work and lives of students.


Paragraph 19A (Business days)

Days activities are part of a mandatory elementary school program. In the days activities the content objects interact with one another.


20th Article (EP)

An expanded program includes an extended stay, morning care, additional classes, remedial classes, classes optional electives and extracurricular activities.

The expanded program will include students on a voluntary basis.


Article 20a (Optional Electives)

School for pupils first Class instruction conducted the first foreign language as an optional elective

subject.

School for children 4, 5 and 6 exercise class instruction in the following optional selection objects: a second foreign language, art, computing, sport and art.

School for children 7, 8 and 9 Class conducted a foreign language as an optional elective subject.

School students from 4 to 9 Class required to offer foreign language classes as optional elective subject in the range of two hours per week.

The learner can choose up to two hours of instruction optional electives week.

For students to tailor the program to lower educational standards of school is not implemented classes optional electives.

29th Article (Syllabus and curriculum)

The curriculum is determined electives, annual and weekly number of hours of instruction certain mandatory and elective courses, activity days, the hours of departmental and the minimum number of hours needed to implement the curriculum.

The curriculum shall determine the contents of objects, standards of education and learning objectives in objects.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article may school in the class otherwise distributed weekly number of hours of individual study subjects (flexible subjects). Learning Slovene and Italian or Hungarian in ethnically mixed areas math, foreign language as a compulsory subject and school sport can spread over a period of two consecutive weeks.

The curricula tailored programs to establish a special-pedagogical activities.

….

36th Article (School Calendar)

Types of classes, dates, duration and schedule of school holidays school year in the academic calendar set by the Minister responsible for Education (hereinafter referred to the Minister).


TURKEY



UKRAINE



VENEZUELA

Articles of the Constitution of Venezuela and other laws like Organic Law of Education, Regulation of the Organic Law of Education, Environment Law and Forest Management law on Sustainable Development and Environmental Education

Artículos de la Constitución Nacional de Venezuela y otras leyes (Ley Orgánica de Educación, Reglamento de la Ley Orgánica de Educación, Ley Orgánica del Ambiente y Ley de Bosques y Gestión Forestal) sobre el Desarrollo Sostenible y Educación Ambiental.

Constitución Nacional de Venezuela (1999)
http://venezuela.justia.com/federales/constitucion-de-la-republica-bolivariana-de-venezuela/

Artículo 107

La educación ambiental es obligatoria en los niveles y modalidades del sistema educativo, así como también en la educación ciudadana no formal. Es de obligatorio cumplimiento en las instituciones públicas y privadas, hasta el ciclo diversificado, la enseñanza de la lengua castellana, la historia y la geografía de Venezuela, así como los principios del ideario bolivariano.

Artículo 123

Los pueblos indígenas tienen derecho a mantener y promover sus propias prácticas económicas basadas en la reciprocidad, la solidaridad y el intercambio; sus actividades productivas tradicionales, su participación en la economía nacional y a definir sus prioridades. Los pueblos indígenas tienen derecho a servicios de formación profesional y a participar en la elaboración, ejecución y gestión de programas específicos de capacitación, servicios de asistencia técnica y financiera que fortalezcan sus actividades económicas en el marco del desarrollo local sustentable. El Estado garantizará a los trabajadores y trabajadoras pertenecientes a los pueblos indígenas el goce de los derechos que confiere la legislación laboral.

Artículo 127

Es un derecho y un deber de cada generación proteger y mantener el ambiente en beneficio de sí misma y del mundo futuro. Toda persona tiene derecho individual y colectivamente a disfrutar de una vida y de un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. El Estado protegerá el ambiente, la diversidad biológica, genética, los procesos ecológicos, los parques nacionales y monumentos naturales y demás áreas de especial importancia ecológica. El genoma de los seres vivos no podrá ser patentado, y la ley que refiera a los principios bioéticos regulará la materia.

Es una obligación fundamental del Estado, con la activa participación de la sociedad, garantizar que la población se desenvuelva en un ambiente libre de contaminación, en donde el aire, el agua, los suelos, las costas, el clima, la capa de ozono, las especies vivas, sean especialmente protegidos, de conformidad con la ley.

Artículo 128

El Estado desarrollará una política de ordenación del territorio atendiendo a las realidades ecológicas, geológicas, poblacionales, sociales, culturales, económicas, políticas, de acuerdo con las premisas del desarrollo sustentable, que incluya la información, consulta y participación ciudadana. Una ley orgánica desarrollará los principios y criterios para este ordenamiento.

Artículo 304

Todas las aguas son bienes de dominio público de la Nación, insustituibles para la vida y el desarrollo. La ley establecerá las disposiciones necesarias a fin de garantizar su protección, aprovechamiento y recuperación, respetando las fases del ciclo hidrológico y los criterios de ordenación del territorio.

Artículo 307

El régimen latifundista es contrario al interés social. La ley dispondrá lo conducente en materia tributaria para gravar las tierras ociosas y establecerá las medidas necesarias para su transformación en unidades económicas productivas, rescatando igualmente las tierras de vocación agrícola. Los campesinos o campesinas y demás productores o productoras agropecuarios tienen derecho a la propiedad de la tierra, en los casos y formas especificados por la ley respectiva. El Estado protegerá y promoverá las formas asociativas y particulares de propiedad para garantizar la producción agrícola. El Estado velará por la ordenación sustentable de las tierras de vocación agrícola para asegurar su potencial agroalimentario. Excepcionalmente se crearán contribuciones parafiscales con el fin de facilitar fondos para financiamiento, investigación, asistencia técnica, transferencia tecnológica y otras actividades que promuevan la productividad y la competitividad del sector agrícola. La ley regulará lo conducente a esta materia.

Artículo 310

El turismo es una actividad económica de interés nacional, prioritaria para el país en su estrategia de diversificación y desarrollo sustentable. Dentro de las fundamentaciones del régimen socioeconómico previsto en esta Constitución, el Estado dictará las medidas que garanticen su desarrollo. El Estado velará por la creación y fortalecimiento del sector turístico nacional.

Artículo 326

La seguridad de la Nación se fundamenta en la corresponsabilidad entre el Estado y la sociedad civil, para dar cumplimiento a los principios de independencia, democracia, igualdad, paz, libertad, justicia, solidaridad, promoción y conservación ambiental y afirmación de los derechos humanos, así como en la satisfacción progresiva de las necesidades individuales y colectivas de los venezolanos y venezolanas, sobre las bases de un desarrollo sustentable y productivo de plena cobertura para la comunidad nacional. El principio de la corresponsabilidad se ejerce sobre los ámbitos económico, social, político, cultural, geográfico, ambiental y militar.

Ley Orgánica de Educación (2009)
http://www.me.gob.ve/ley_organica.pdf

En el artículo 15 de la Ley Orgánica de Educación donde se habla sobre los fines de la educación, se plantean algunos puntos sobre la Ecología y Desarrollo Sostenible.

Artículo 15. La educación, conforme a los principios y valores de la Constitución de la República y de la presente Ley, tiene como fines:

5. Impulsar la formación de una conciencia ecológica para preservar la biodiversidad y la sociodiversidad, las condiciones ambientales y el aprovechamiento racional de los recursos naturales.

6. Formar en, por y para el trabajo social liberador, dentro de una perspectiva integral, mediante políticas de desarrollo humanístico, científico y tecnológico, vinculadas al desarrollo endógeno productivo y sustentable.

7. Impulsar la integración latinoamericana y caribeña bajo la perspectiva multipolar orientada por el impulso de la democracia participativa, por la lucha contra la exclusión, el racismo y toda forma de discriminación, por la promoción del desarme nuclear y la búsqueda del equilibrio ecológico en el mundo.

Reglamento General de la Ley Orgánica de Educación (1999)
http://www.oei.es/quipu/venezuela/Reglamento_ley_org_educ.pdf

En este Reglamento de la Ley Orgánica de Educación se menciona la necesidad de estimular la conciencia ambiental en la educación extra escolar.

Capítulo VII, De la Educación Extra Escolar
Artículo 48
Para el cumplimiento de los fines que la Ley Orgánica de Educación le asigna a la educación extra escolar, el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes diseñará políticas, planes y programas que tiendan a elevar el nivel cultural, artístico y moral de la población y perfeccionen su capacidad para el trabajo. Asimismo, orientará en todos los niveles y modalidades del sistema, el uso adecuado de los medios para la utilización del tiempo libre. En tal virtud le corresponde:

5. Estimular a la población para la toma de conciencia acerca de la conservación, defensa,mejoramiento, aprovechamiento y uso racional del ambiente y de los recursos naturales y la superación de su calidad de vida.


Ley Orgánica del Ambiente (2006)
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1307

En la Ley Orgánica del Ambiente se dedica un capítulo completo a la Educación Ambiental.

TÍTULO IV DE LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL Y LA PARTICIPACIÓN CIUDADANA Capítulo I De la Educación Ambiental

Artículo 34

La educación ambiental tiene por objeto promover, generar, desarrollar y consolidar en los

ciudadanos y ciudadanas conocimientos, aptitudes y actitudes para contribuir con la transformación de la sociedad, que se reflejará en alternativas de solución a los problemas socioambientales, contribuyendo así al logro del bienestar social, integrándose en la gestión del ambiente a través de la participación activa y protagónica, bajo la premisa del desarrollo sustentable.

Artículo 35

Los lineamientos para la educación ambiental son:

1. Incorporar una signatura en materia ambiental, con carácter obligatorio, como constitutivo del pénsum en todos los niveles y modalidades del sistema educativo bolivariano, dentro del continuo proceso de desarrollo humano, con el propósito de formar ciudadanos y ciudadanas ambientalmente responsables, garantes del patrimonio natural y sociocultural en el marco del desarrollo sustentable.

2. Vincular el ambiente con temas asociados a ética, paz, derechos humanos, participación protagónica, la salud, el género, la pobreza, la sustentabilidad, la conservación de la diversidad biológica, el patrimonio cultural, la economía y desarrollo, el consumo responsable, democracia y bienestar social, integración de los pueblos, así como la problemática ambiental mundial.

3. Desarrollar procesos educativos ambientales en el ámbito de lo no formal que promuevan y fortalezcan el derecho a la participación de ciudadanos, ciudadanas y comunidad en general, en el marco de una gestión del ambiente en forma compartida.

4. Incorporar la educación ambiental para el desarrollo endógeno sustentable, desde una perspectiva participativa, crítica, influyente, transformadora de los sistemas productivos que reconozca la diversidad cultural y ecológica en el ámbito de la organización social.

5. Promover el diálogo de saberes, como base del intercambio, producción y difusión de información en los procesos educativos ambientales para generar acciones colectivas en el abordaje y solución de problemas socio ambientales.

Artículo 36

Las personas naturales o jurídicas, públicas y privadas, responsables en la formulación y ejecución de proyectos que impliquen la utilización de los recursos naturales y de la diversidad biológica, deben generar procesos permanentes de educación ambiental que permitan la conservación de los ecosistemas y el desarrollo sustentable

Artículo 37

Las instituciones públicas y privadas deberán incorporar principios de educación ambiental en los programas de capacitación de su personal.

Artículo 38

En el proceso de educación ambiental, se tomarán en consideración los aportes y conocimientos tradicionales de los pueblos y comunidades indígenas y de otras comunidades organizadas, así como las técnicas e innovaciones, asociados al uso de los recursos naturales y de formas de vida ecológicamente armónicas.

Ley de Bosques y Gestión Forestal
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1311

Artículo 1

Objeto
 El objeto del presente Decreto con Rango, Valor y Fuerza de Leyes establecer los principios y normas para la conservación y uso sustentable de los bosques y demás componentes del patrimonio forestal, en beneficio de las generaciones actuales y futuras, atendiendo al interés social, ambiental y económico de la Nación.

TÍTULO II GESTIÓN FORESTAL
Artículo 9

Principios de la Gestión Forestal: 
La gestión forestal se refiere al conjunto integrado de acciones y medidas orientadas a la sustentabilidad de los bosques, y demás componentes del patrimonio forestal; y al desarrollo integral de las potencialidades del país en materia forestal. Se fundamenta en los principios siguientes:

1. Sustentabilidad: los bosques nativos constituyen ecosistemas indispensables para el mantenimiento del equilibrio ecológico del planeta, y debe garantizarse su permanencia en el tiempo para el beneficio de generaciones actuales y futuras, por lo cual debe fomentarse el bosque plantado para la provisión de servicios y bienes forestales maderables y no maderables.

Artículo 86

Objetivos de la investigación forestal
Son objetivos de la investigación en materia forestal:

1. Disponer de información actualizada y completa sobre las características y condiciones de los bosques del país a partir de su evaluación y valoración.

2. Optimizar el conocimiento sobre la diversidad de bienes y servicios forestales, sus propiedades, usos y aplicaciones y los mecanismos idóneos para su protección y utilización sustentable.

3. Impulsar la aplicación de técnicas y métodos que favorezcan la eficiencia tecnológica, sustentabilidad ambiental y rentabilidad económica en las actividades de aprovechamiento, transformación y procesamiento de bienes forestales.

4. Recabar información actualizada sobre las plagas y enfermedades que afectan a las especies forestales y los tratamientos ambientales que permitan su erradicación o control.

5. Asegurar la transferencia de conocimientos e información entre órganos y entes públicos, sectores productivos y comunidades locales.

6. Fomentar el intercambio científico y tecnológico, canalizando la obtención de cooperación técnica en estudios y proyectos orientados al desarrollo y mejoramiento del sector forestal.

7. Proveer información confiable y actualizada sobre aspectos ecológicos, económicos y técnicos referidos al establecimiento de plantaciones forestales productoras y sistemas agroforestales.

8. Vincular las comunidades al bosque, a través de la investigación participativa, el reconocimiento de estos espacios de vida y la concientización sobre su valor ecológico, cultural y económico, apoyando labores comunales de aprovechamiento y conservación del bosque.

Artículo 90

Política de industrialización forestal


El Ejecutivo Nacional desarrollará políticas para promover en el país la consolidación de un sector industrial forestal competitivo y diversificado, y establecerá los mecanismos de regulación que aseguren la sustentabilidad ambiental y el suministro continuo, eficiente y equitativo de materia prima forestal y de productos manufacturados derivados de ésta

Artículo 97

Incentivos para la conservación y el desarrollo forestal sustentable


El Ejecutivo Nacional estimulará la conservación del patrimonio forestal y el desarrollo forestal sustentable, mediante el otorgamiento, de conformidad con lo previsto en el presente Decreto con Rango, Valor y Fuerza de Ley y su Reglamento, de incentivos económicos y fiscales a las personas naturales o jurídicas y comunidades organizadas que ejecuten actividades y proyectos orientados a la conservación, uso sustentable, protección, recuperación, fomento y mejoramiento de bosques y demás componentes del patrimonio forestal, incluidos el establecimiento de plantaciones forestales, sistemas agroforestales, banco de semillas y viveros forestales.

Podrán así mismo beneficiarse de estos incentivos, las actividades de manejo forestal, industrialización, transformación y procesamiento de bienes forestales que cumplan con los parámetros de sustentabilidad ambiental, eficiencia productiva y responsabilidad social, o que incorporen en sus procesos tecnologías limpias y reducción de impactos ambientales.

Otras leyes:

Ley Penal del Ambiente
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1308

Ley de Aguas
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1310

Ley de Gestión de la Diversidad Biológica
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1312

Ley de Gestión Integral de la Basura
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1313

Ley de Protección de la Fauna Doméstica Libre y en Cautiverio
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1314

Ley sobre Sustancias, Materiales y Desechos Peligrosos
http://www.defensoria.gob.ve/dp/index.php/leyes-ambiente/1315



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