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ALBANIA



Structure of the school year 2011-2012 (MoEd website)


A subject called “Natural sciences” is taught in grades 3-5 of the basic education (that covers 9 grades). In addition, elective classes are available in all years of this level.


In upper secondary cycle the subject “Earth science, environment and space” is given in the first year (10th grade), while “Natural sciences” is given in the last year (12th grade).


ARMENIA


MoEd website


Upper secondary level: a discipline called “Environment” within the Natural sciences area is given in all the 3 yeas of this cycle in the amount of 1 class / week.



Armenia Tree project (http://www.armeniatree.org/whatwedo/eea.htm)


ATP is developing environmental education as a core program area in order to prepare the nation’s youth for becoming the next generation of environmental stewards. By actively engaging youth in a process to better understand and appreciate the value of a healthy and sustainable environment, ATP seeks to protect the trees we plant today from future exploitation.


The public school system in Armenia does not have an environmental education component in its curriculum, so ATP designed a curriculum that will be introduced to the Ministry of Education for consideration as a mandatory teaching tool for primary through secondary school students. The curriculum was approved and recommended by the Republic of Armenia National Institute of Education as a manual for science teachers in public schools. All schools in Armenia have received the Curriculum. Today ATP in collaboration with National Institute of Education provides country wide trainings on environmental education in all regions of Armenia.


AZERBAIJAN


MoEd website


Primary level (grades 1-4): only one subject called “Life skill” is possibly related to environment and sustainability and it is given in all the 4 years.


Lower and upper secondary levels (grades 5-11): a general “Science” subject is given only in 5th grade, followed by specialised subjects in the other years (like Physics, Chemistry, etc). The subject “Life skill” continues until 9th grade. At this level a number of electives is also available in each year, but it is not mentioned what kind of courses these classes can choose from.


BELARUS


MoEd website


Primary level (grades 1-4): there is one subject called “Man and the World”, which is given in all the 4 years. There are also some hours available that can be filled with extracurricular activities.


Secondary level: According to the website http://export.by the secondary level only focuses on specialised subjects from the natural sciences area (Physics, Geography, Chemistry and Biology).


“Learning about problems of and international documents on sustainable development is not present in Belarusian school curriculum”. (Youth International Education Club “NEWLINE”)


BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA


There are seven educational systems in Bosnia today, each with its own curriculum and textbooks. (http://www.rferl.org/content/Bosnian_Schools_Teach_Reading_Writing__And_Division/1359057.html)


Education for Sustainable Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina Research Report (http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/BIH_ESD_eng.pdf)


Education on sustainable development has been reduced to education on environmental protection through school subjects (biology, my environment, nature and society …) and the work of Eco and school clubs. The missing elements include the importance of changing one's own behaviour (children, parents, schools, governments…), which is in general a harder learning goal but one ideally suited to the elementary school context.


Nonetheless, good practice examples which support idea and concept of SD in education exist, in additional, extra-curricular school activities. The work of the schools and teaching process mostly refer to the proscribed curriculum. The additional, extra-curricular activities in most cases refer to the projects in which schools get involved. According to the laws on elementary education, the number, type and period of optional education shall be defined in accordance with the resources and possibilities the school has at its disposal.


Schools are generally very interested in developing optional activities, including those related to the environment although most note challenges related to funding, time constraints due to the overly cumbersome regular program (especially where teachers work in several different out-of-seat units), or student transportation (in cases where large numbers of students take organized transport to get home and must leave immediately after class).


BULGARIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2005/2006


For the primary and lower secondary cycles there is one educational area called Natural Sciences and Ecology, that includes the following sustainability-related subjects:

  • Environment (2nd grade)
  • Man and Nature (3rd and 4th grades). The syllabus for Man and Nature recommends broadening students’ ecological culture and positive interpersonal relations with the surrounding environment,
  • Chemistry and Environmental Conservation (7th and 8th grades)


At this level the curriculum includes three types of subjects: А. compulsory, B. compulsory-elective and C. free elective. Section B of the curriculum specifies the school hours in the compulsory-elective subjects, which provide an opportunity for building on the general education minimum according to pupils’ interests and abilities. Section C of the curriculum defines the free elective subjects, which provide education according to the pupils’ choice outside the subjects from the cultural and educational areas defined in the curriculum. Every school by a decision of the pedagogical council passes a school curriculum which specifies the compulsory elective and free elective subjects and the distribution of school hours in these subjects for the whole educational stage. The school curriculum complies with pupils’ interests and the potential of the school.


For the upper secondary cycle there is one educational area called Natural Sciences and Ecology, that includes the following sustainability-related subject: Chemistry and Environmental Conservation (9th and 10th grades). The curriculum structure envisages three types of education: compulsory, compulsory-elective and free elective. Compulsory-elective education provides additional instruction within the subjects from the cultural and educational areas corresponding to the interest and individual abilities of the pupils. The share of compulsory-elective education at upper secondary level is between 45 to 80% of the compulsory hours. Free elective education provides instruction in areas and activities offered by the school and elected by the pupils, which may be outside the cultural and educational areas. Its duration is up to four class periods per week for all classes in accordance with the curriculum and is not compulsory for pupils.


CROATIA


National Curriculum Framework (MoEd website)


The National Curriculum Framework presupposes an equal curriculum structure in primary and secondary schools. This consists of the core (identical and compulsory for all students), differentiated (consists of one or more optional subjects offered at the national and/or school level) and school (non-compulsory subjects) curricula.


Non-compulsory subjects may include, for instance Environmental and cultural heritage, Drama education, Addiction prevention, Domestic science, Handicrafts, classical and foreign languages, and many others that the school may prepare and offer to students, taking into consideration their needs, general educational values, goals, and the development of key competences. Schools may create other subjects, modules, projects, and activities at their own discretion.


Interdisciplinary themes represent the literal fusing of educational areas with common or complementary themes into single, harmonious wholes. Interdisciplinary themes are compulsory in all subjects, and all implementers of educational activities in schools are obliged to implement them. Schools are free to elaborate on proposed interdisciplinary themes, and to devise ways to implement them. The efficient development of interdisciplinary abilities among students is greater when, in addition to being incorporated into individual subjects, they are fostered through common projects or modules.


One of the interdisciplinary themes in the National Curriculum Framework is Health, safety, and environmental protection. This interdisciplinary theme is promoted in all educational areas, ensuring the development of a positive and responsible attitude of students towards environmental protection and sustainable development, among others. Through education for environmental protection and sustainable development, students learn about the diverse relationships that exist between the natural, social, economic, and cultural dimensions of the environment. They develop an understanding for the complexity of environmental problems that arise due to changes in living standards as well as social, economic, and technological development. Students build a positive system of values with respect to ecological conservation and a rational utilisation of natural resources. In particular, they adopt values such as consideration, moderation, thrift, solidarity, self-respect and respect for other people, respect for the natural environment and its resources, respect for biological and cultural diversity, and also respect for planet Earth as a whole.


Furthermore, notions of the environment and sustainable development are included to various degrees in subjects pertaining to the Science area, that is being taught at both primary and secondary levels.


Additional info: http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/111CroESD_eng.pdf


CYPRUS


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


Objectives: “Strong emphasis is placed on skills in languages and mathematics, as well as health and environmental education and creative and artistic expression.”


“The aim [of primary education] includes … the development of sensitivity in preserving and improving environment.”


For the primary cycle of education the subject Environmental Sciences is compulsory in the 1st and 2nd grades.


In the secondary education cycle one of the stated ongoing debates and future developments is Environmental Education, which aims at developing positive attitudes among pupils towards the environment and its sustainable development according to the Rio Agenda 21. Such programmes are:

  • “The Gold and Green Leaf” (Cyprus and Greece);
  • “Ecoschools” (European programme for pupils at all levels of education);
  • “Young Reporters and the Environment” (European programme for gymnasia and lyceums);
  • “SEMEP” (South Eastern Mediterranean Environmental Programme);
  • “GLOBE” (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment);
  • The Ministry of Education and Culture in cooperation with the Paidagogiko Institouto Kyprou (Pedagogical Institute of Cyprus) published in 2007, The Strategic Plan for Environmental Education with Emphasis on Sustainable Development – a useful guide for teachers and schools.


For the lower secondary cycle the subject Natural Sciences is compulsory in the 1st grade.


For the upper secondary cycle the subject Environmental Sciences is one of the “optional streams” offered only in the 2nd grade, as well as an elective “subject of special interest and enrichment” offered both in 2nd and 3rd grades.


CZECH REPUBLIC


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


Primary and lower secondary cycles: “The following cross-curricular themes must be taught at both first and second stage, although they need not be included in every year: Personal and social education, Education for democratic citizenship, Education towards thinking in the European and global context, Multicultural education, Environmental education, and Media studies.”


Upper secondary cycle: the same cross-curricular themes as above apply. “All thematic fields of cross-curricular themes must be included but the depth at which they are taught is decided by school head.”


“Aims and priorities of the Long-term Policy Objectives of Education and Development of the Education System of the Czech Republic: […] evaluation of priorities in the area of education towards sustainable development and in environmental education and public education.”


The Rada pro udržitelný rozvoj (Government Council for Sustainable Development) deals with the strategic aspects of development. It has 28 members, including a representative of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. Priorities in the area of education sustainable development are specified in The Czech Strategy of Education for Sustainable Development 2008– 2015.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1. GENERAL

  • Ministry of Education: Ministerio de Educación
  • Revision: The Dominican Republic is being updated
  • Flexibility: Article 64 of the General education law 66’97 stipulates that the Dominican curriculum must be: [2]
    • “Flexible, in view of the specificities of different levels, cycles and grades; of students’ characteristics and educators’ capacities, as well as of the special characteristics and needs of different regions and communities in the country” [2-translation]
    • “Open to enrichment, as required by society’s demands and/or science and technology” [2-translation]
    • “Participative, endeavouring to include different sectors of society in the different stages of its development” [2-translation]
  • System [8]
    • Nivel Inicial (0-6 years): Pre-primary education
    • Nivel Básico/Primario (6-14 years): Primary Education
    • Nivel Medio/Secundario (14-18 years): Secondary Education
  • The following sections aim to give an idea of sustainability / environmental issues that are included in the curriculum of the Dominican Republic, and that are included in the curriculum revision documents. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list of elements covered, but an overview.
  • Given that the curriculum is undergoing updates, please check the websites of the Ministry of Education and the Curriculum Revision website for latest documents

2. CURRICULUM

Nivel Inicial (Pre-primary; 0-6 years) [4]

  • NB: From copy of curriculum which appears very old, but no other version seems available other than the curriculum revision (see other section for this revision)
  • General comments: Some emphasis on children understanding the natural world around them; no mention of sustainability noted; education as part of working towards a fairer and more equal society noted (see section 3.2: Contribución del Nivel para el Logro del Tipo de Sociedad al que se Aspira)
  • Elements relating to sustainability / environmental issues:
    • Under ‘Block 2: Family Experience In My Life’
      • Includes: “Polluting substances in the environment (smoke, seqage, noise, rubbish). Their impact on living beings and their surroundings. Actions of environmental preservation (cleaning the room, school, street).”
    • Under Block 4: My Local Community and the Area Where I Live
      • “Care for and maintenance of the environment and of public spaces in the community.”
    • Under Block 7: Plants, Animals and Other Elements of Nature
      • “The extinction of animal and plant species”
    • Under Block 8: Planet Earth in the Universe
      • “Water as an essential component […] Pollution and its negative effects, ways of avoiding it”
      • “The air as an essential component. Pollution and its negative effects.”

Primary (nivel básico) and Secondary (nivel medio) [3]

  • General comments: Sustainability as a concept does not appear to be mentioned, although various issues relating to sustainability are taught (predominantly environmental, but also social) . Relationship of humans to natural environment often emphasised.
  • Subjects: Spanish Language; English; French; Mathematics; Social Sciences; Natural Sciences; FIHR (Formación integral humana y religiosa – Overall, Human and Religious Education); Physical Education; Artistic education; Socio-cultural encouragement; Gender education
  • Below are the subjects which contain elements related to sustainability / environmental issues:
  • SOCIAL SCIENCES
    • Primary: Includes “The environment and its importance for life”; “neighbourhood resource: care and sensible use”
    • Secondary: Includes “characteristics and problems of cities”; “World population. Growth and problems to tackle.”; “The earth and its resources. The consequence of not exploiting resources sensibly”
  • NATURAL SCIENCES
    • Primary: Includes “noise pollution”; “Extinction of species. Natural resources. Sensible use.”; “the ecosistem and its dynamics. Energy flows. Natural resources, types, preservation. Ways to avoid pollution.”
    • Secondary: Includes biodiversity; “Natural resources. Classification. Uses and preservation.”; “Water: obtaining water […] The importance of water for life. Appropriate management. Sources of pollution”; “animal and plant species in extinction. Measures to preserve flora and fauna”
  • SOCIO-CULTURAL ENCOURAGEMENT: Overall subject in both primary and secondary education, which includes teaching on human rights, democracy, political and social participation, heritage, identity and the environment

3. CURRICULUM REVISION

  • General comments: Environmental issues and specific mentions of sustainability seem more prominent in the revised curriculums

Nivel Inicial (0-6 years) [5]

  • General comments: themes of environmental protection etc. introduced
  • Extract from Profile on completion (see pp.95-6): “Knowledgeable of their natural and social surroundings, they show interest in and respect for the environment; they establish, in turn, relationships between the different elements, objects and phenomena in nature to better understand the world as well as to develop their curiosity”
  • “Competencias Fundamentales“ (Fundamental skills/competencies) are taught from the second cycle of the ‘Nivel Incial’. They are as follows, with particular areas related to sustainability / environmental issues highlighted: (from sections 4 & 6)
    • Civic and ethical competency: (Competencia Ética y Ciudadana):
      • Responsible citizenship etc.; includes respect for the environment
    • Competency in communication (Competencia comunicativa)
    • Competency in logical, creative and critical thought (Competencia De Pensamiento Lógico, Creativo y Crítico)
    • Competency in problema resolution (Competencia de Resolución de Problemas)
    • Scientific and technological competency (Competencia Científica y Tecnológica)
      • Indicators of achievement in this area include (from section 6) participating in the care of the environment, including water saving and electricity saving, identifying objects which can be reused etc.
    • Health and environmental competency (Competencia Ambiental y de la Salud)
      • Includes: “2. he/she knows and protects his/her natural and social environment: he/she cares for and values his/her surroundings recognising them as a space of life and interaction; he/she identifies and cares for the living things in his/her environment and shows interest for them” (Extracts from section 4)
    • Competency in personal and spiritual development (Competencia de desarrollo personal y espiritual)

Nivel Primario (Primer Ciclo) [6]

  • General comments: various specific mentions of sustainability / sustainable development, many in the context of sustainable resource use
  • Extract from Introduction (p.12): “As the National Pact for Educational Reform in the Dominican Republic states, education “is directed to constructing full citizens through all-round training of people who are aware of their rights and responsibilities, socially responsible, committed to equality and gender equity, to attention to diversity, to the sustainable use of natural resources and to environmental protection.””
  • Extract from “chapter 3: profile on completion” (p.52): “They [students] value and respect life in its different manifestations and protect their natural surroundings. They act positively in favour of the preservation of and care for the environment. They look after their personal health and they realise the relationship that this has with environmental health. They value sport as a means of recreation to generate and preserve physical and mental health. They show curiosity for deepening knowledge of living beings and their relationship with natural surroundings. They recognise and appreciate the diversity of living things.”
  • Competencias Fundamentales: Amongst the 7 competencies / skills (see ‘Nivel Inicial’ under revised curriculum for all 7 of these) are included (see chapter 4)
    • Civic and ethical competency: includes themes of social responsibility
    • Health and environmental competency: includes:
      • 2. “He/she practices healthy lifestyle habits
        • Including “he/she enjoys nature and shows sensitivity to its beauty”
      • “He/she is committed to environmental sustainability”
        • “identifies factors which affected the healthy functioning of ecosystems”
        • “identifies and rejects human behaviour which generates consequences for environmental sustainability”
        • “acts in favour of the preservation of natural resources”
        • “knows and puts into practice emergency measures in the case of risks and natural disasters”
        • “Practices behaviours which show a sensible use of resources such as water, electrical energy, paper”
  • The 7 Subjects: Spanish language; Mathematics; Social Sciences; Natural Sciences; Artistic Education; Physical Education; Overall, Human and Religious Education (FIHR).
  • Examples of elements of sustainability / environmental issues under these subjects:
    • Under social sciences: themes of respect and care for the natural and social environment and “appropriate maintenance”; relationship between humans and the environment; citizenship; social harmony; “he/she identifies problems in society and nature in the country and presents proposals for relevant solutions”
    • Under Natural Sciences: “energy and conservation”; care for the environment; sustainable use of resources; “sustainable use of technology”; “he/she applies measures of care in the sustainable use of natural resources”
    • Under FIHR: respect for others and for nature (often in context of nature as gift from God); social harmony

Nivel Primario (Segundo Ciclo) [7]

  • General comments: various specific mentions of sustainability / sustainable development, many in the context of sustainable resource use
  • See Primer Ciclo for extracts from introduction / ‘competencias’ / profile on completion
  • The 8 subjects: Spanish Language; English; Mathematics; Social Sciences; Natural Sciences; Artistic Education; Physical Education; Overall, Human and Religious Education
  • Examples of elements of sustainability / environmental issues under these subjects:
    • Under Social Sciences: human rights; social harmony; citizenship; environmental responsibility; environmental protection; pollution and avoidance; democratic values; “critical and responsible attitude towards injustice and inequality”; “critical attitude towards actions which pollute the environment”
    • Under Natural Sciences: sustainable development; “he/she understands and acts with critical responsibility for a sustainable development of society”; reforestation; “elimination or introduction of species in an ecosystem”; sustainable resource/technology use; contamination of water & solutions to this; renewable energies
    • Under FIHR: respect for others and for nature (often in context of nature as gift from God); social harmony; promotion of values of equality, justice etc.

Nivel Medio

  • Revised curriculum does not appear to be available yet

SOURCES (All sources in Spanish)

  1. Information in this section taken and translated from ‘Contenidos Básicos de las Áreas Curriculares’ (Basic Content of Curricular Areas). Available from this page
  2. Information in this section taken and translated from curriculum document for ‘Nivel Inicial’. (dated 2006-07). Available from this page
  3. Information in this section taken and translated from Diseño Curricular: Nivel Inicial (Curriculum Design: Initial Level) (dated 2014)

EGYPT


MoEd website


Difficult to access information (only in Arabic). At a first glance, there seems to be no dedicated sustainability or environment-related subject (except usual general ones, like Geography, Chemistry and Physics).


ESTONIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


“The main purpose of education is to establish favouring conditions for the development of personality, family, the Estonian and minority nations, also the development of economic, political and cultural life in Estonia and protection of the environment in the context of the global economy and culture.”


Primary and secondary stages of education: Cross-curricular topics assist in making the curriculum an integral whole and relating teachings to problems encountered in life and society, These topics are superior to regular subjects and help create an image of the evolvement of society as a whole. The compulsory cross-curricular topics are: environment and sustainable development; building up a professional career; information technology and media; safety. The specifications of compulsory subjects, lists of optional subjects and conditions for choosing them are established by a school's curriculum. A school establishes its own fields of study through the optional subjects and courses and/or by intensified study in some subjects. A student's curriculum includes compulsory subjects and optional subjects (courses) the choice of which depends on the selected field of study.


“According to the national curriculum, students of upper secondary schools are expected to achieve the following competencies: [..] values the idea of sustainable development, has a fully formed naturalistic conception of the world and […] is aware of global problems, of his or her co-responsibility for solutions, is able to avoid and decrease activities damaging the environment.”


Additional info: http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/EST_ESD_eng1_opt.pdf

FIJI

NB: Numbers in square brackets refer to sources listed under each subsection. Quote marks have been used where information is directly copied or directly translated.

1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, NATIONAL HERITAGE, CULTURE AND ARTS

  • New curriculum was developed, dated 2007: The Fiji Islands National Curriculum Framework. Its planned phasing in was from 2008-14 [1]
  • Mission of the Ministry [2]: “To provide a holistic and empowering education system that enables all children to realise and appreciate fully their inheritance and potential contributing to peaceful and sustainable national development”
  • Key Values [2]: Human rights and human dignity; Responsibility; Safety and security for all; Civic pride; Cultural understanding; Empathy and tolerance; Honesty; Fairness and respect for truth and justice; Integrity; Flexibility; Environment sustainability; Peace and prosperity; Compassion; Sense of family and community; Faith; Creativity; Life-long learning

2. NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK [3]
General [3]

  • Division by age
    • Early Childhood Care, Development and Education: ages 0-8
    • Pre-school: ages 3-5
    • Primary phase: ages 6-13
      • Early Primary: ages 6-7 (classes 1-2)
      • Primary: ages 8-13 (classes 3-8)
    • Secondary phase: ages 12-18+ (forms 1-7)
  • Primary system [4]
    • “Primary school covers classes (grades) 1-6 or grades 1-8; grades 7 and 8 (or Forms 1 and 2) are considered as intermediate education, covering two years of senior primary school or Forms 1 and 2 of junior secondary school. The first two years of primary school (grades 1 and 2) are considered as early primary education.”
  • Secondary system [4]
    • “secondary school covers Forms 1 to 6 (or 7) or Forms 3-6 (or 7). Junior secondary schools offer Forms 1 to 4.”
    • “After the successful completion of Form 6, students can either continue in secondary schools in Form 7 or pursue a foundation level course at a university.”
  • 'Statement on the philosophy behind schooling’
    • The statement emphasises the importance of positive attitudes and global citizenship:
    • “They [students] will be committed to:
      • cultural, multicultural, and religious understanding and tolerance
      • harmonious living
      • global co-existence, and
      • the promotion of environmental sustainability.
    • Students will be informed, creative, responsible and productive citizens contributing to a peaceful, prosperous and just society.” (extract)
  • General comments:
    • Environmental sustainability is detailed in the curriculum as an integrated subject (one of 7 curriculum perspectives)
    • Teaching on relationship with the environment is included under Science and Studies of Society & Economic Development (2 of the 7 Key Learning Areas)

Curriculum Perspectives [3]

  • The 7 Curriculum Perspectives: careers; environmental sustainable education; literacy; numeracy; citizenship; religious education; special needs education
  • “These important perspectives are usually best integrated across the curriculum.”
  • “curriculum perspectives should be evident in all FALD and KLAs”; “some will be more evident in particular FALD and KLAs”
  • CURRICULUM PERSPECTIVE: CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
    • “The Ministry of Education's Strategic Plan (2003-2005) captures the essence of an effective citizenship programme: “To develop students who respect others, appreciate Fiji's multicultural heritage and are responsible, informed and involved citizens of both Fiji and the world.””
  • CURRICULUM PERSPECTIVE: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY
    • “What is Environmental Education for Sustainability?
    • One of the pillars of sustainable development that gives shape and content to sustainable learning is environment. Environmental education for sustainability promotes awareness of the fragility of the physical environment affected by human activity. Environmental education for sustainability envisions that education will empower students to assume responsibility for creating a sustainable future. That is, after schooling students will have an understanding of, concern for and an ethic of caring towards the natural world. This means students need to have developed the knowledge, critical thinking skills, and appropriate values to participate in decision-making about environmental and developmental issues.
    • The guiding principles of environmental education emphasise a holistic approach. These principles view the environment in its totality - natural and cultural, technological and social. Consequently, environmental problems will need to be addressed through economic, social and political policies and technological change.
    • Teaching for environmental sustainability
    • Teaching and learning strategies for environmental education need to emphasise not only knowledge and understanding, but also and more importantly critical thinking skills and development of environmental attitudes and commitment. Students need to learn how to work collaboratively to improve human and environment well-being. Effective environmental education for sustainability will not only focus on what we learn but also on how we learn.
    • The implementation of an effective programme of environmental education for sustainability requires a whole school approach and purposeful learning experiences in all FALD. It begins with the development of a shared school vision, a mission statement, and clear learning outcomes. This vision will define how schools are organised, and identify the roles that administrators, teachers, students and families will assume in this structure. Teaching and learning experiences will integrate goals for conservation, social justice, cultural diversity and appropriate development. These learning experiences will ensure that young people develop civic values and skills that will help them to become responsible citizens.
    • Environmental education for sustainability will be a core cultural feature of early childhood and school programmes. All groups that make up a school community will be involved in supporting this important facet of contemporary education.”

Individual Subjects [3]

  • Background: “The NCF [National Curriculum Framework] is organised using six Foundation Areas of Learning and Development (FALD) for early childhood, and seven Key Learning Areas (KLAs) for the primary and secondary levels of schooling. The curriculum is grouped into these areas and is described using essential learning outcomes for all students”
  • Foundation areas of learning and development: Aesthetics, creativity and the arts; Language, literacy and communication; Learning to know; Learning and living together; Physical development, health and wellbeing; Spiritual and moral
  • Key Learning Areas: Expressive and creative arts; Healthy living and physical education; Languages; Mathematics; Science; Studies of society & economic development; Technology
  • KEY LEARNING AREA: SCIENCE (extracts)
    • “They [students] develop an understanding and appreciation of the importance of natural resources, interrelationships in systems and how to utilise these efficiently in sustainable ways. They understand the need to adapt and to enjoy living in their surroundings.”
    • “They will use reasoning and decision making skills that contribute towards co-existing peacefully in society with concern for other disciplines, their culture and the environment.”
  • KEY LEARNING AREA: STUDIES OF SOCIETY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (SSED) (extracts)
    • “SSED provides children and students with the opportunity to investigate peoples and events in relation to their culture, resources and environment, enabling them to gain a better understanding of how individuals and groups interact with each other and their environment. Its concepts, skills and attitudes are drawn from many disciplines such as accounting; geography; history; law; politics; and sociology, and from multidisciplinary studies such as business studies, environmental studies, and multicultural studies.
    • SSED enables children and students to develop knowledge of: the Fiji Islands and its place in the global community; the diversity of its land and people; their cultural and environmental heritage; and their political, legal and economic systems. SSED aims at assisting young people with the development of a cultural ethic in which respect for different cultures and societies is valued.”
    • “Young people will be able to appreciate change and its effect on balance, patterns and relationships. The collective grasp of the different disciplines contributes to an understanding of the interrelationships of human activities and their environment over time thus enabling children and students to make informed and thoughtful decisions.”

SOURCES

  1. All information in this section (expect for the 2 points cited under [4]) from The Fiji Islands National Curriculum Framework. Education for a better future. Available here


FYRO MACEDONIA


News MoEd website 2009


The Ministry of Education and Science and the Government of Switzerland signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the project to integrate environmental education in the Macedonian educational system. The aim is to introduce environmental education in the country on three levels - kindergarten, elementary and secondary schools. The project should take three years to school when all pre-schools and schools need to integrate ecology as a component in the curriculum.


Education for Sustainable Development in FYRO Macedonia Research Report: http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/ENjoinED%20National%20Report_Macedonia_FINAL%20PDF.pdf


Sustainable development is on the margins of interest of both education professionals and policy makers. It does not have the necessary public attention or the institutional will to push for its incorporation in the educational system as a very important principle that needs to be integrated in the existing curricula from the very early age throughout the compulsory schooling.


The National Education Strategy for 2005-2015 makes no reference to SD. It has a small section Environment, covering only some aspects of protecting environment, in the secondary and post-secondary education. The last Framework Curriculum for Primary Education was adopted in 2007 and there is no clear evidence that SD was considered while it was being developed.


Nevertheless, it is highly encouraging that the term SD is found repeatedly in the curricula of individual subjects, especially natural sciences, like Biology, Nature, etc. There is an elective subject that can be chosen by pupils in the 7th, 8th and 9th grades, Environmental Education, covering ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) from cognitive contents through skills and values to futures thinking, which is a small, but very important step in the right direction, making pupils aware of the importance of acting responsibly and providing value framework that might influence their decisions on environmental issues.


Furthermore, Life-Skills Based education, introduced as a compulsory subject in all 3 periods of primary school and secondary school, for class community hours, encompass the theme “Me and the Environment” teaching students from their early school age about environment and their personal care and responsibility towards it.


There is a clear need for a public campaign to raise awareness of the importance of ESD and the necessity to incorporate it in the policy documents and embed the SD concept in the education system as well as insert it on the agenda of both education professionals and policy makers.


GEORGIA


Education for Sustainable Development in Georgia Research Report (http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/GEO_ESD_eng.pdf)


The general approach, as well as content and methods of teaching are defined by the 2 framework documents: National Goals of General Education and National Curriculum (both introduced in 2005). Decentralization of management of general education is also an important component of reform that gives more freedom to schools in making decisions on particular methods and content of teaching, thus explaining a general character of the framework curricular documents.


In an effort to compile the best practice of “what is not a Soviet-type education” Georgia has arrived to the model that formally incorporates many important priorities, modern trends and accents in education, including ESD.


General commitment to ESD is reflected in the Goals of General Education. Logic of the new national curriculum envisages cross-cutting representation of ESD related content in the curriculum and emphasizes importance of generic skills development. An important challenge, however, is to bring more blood and life in the perfectly built skeleton and to achieve that general commitment to ESD is reflected in real-life classroom activities and school experience of students. Therefore, it is important to consistently include ESD content in lower levers of hierarchy of the curricular documents and textbooks and ensure integrity of approach across different grades, subject groups and subjects.


GREECE


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


The education process, as reflected in contemporary curricula, pursues the comprehensive development of personality and successful social integration through the development of cognitive, emotional, mental and motor abilities and skills. One of the primary axes of this effort is increasing awareness with respect to the need to protect the natural environment and to adopt appropriate behaviour patterns.


With the goal of providing a well-rounded and integrated education, the Ministry of National Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs is promoting measures and policies at all education levels, including that of primary education, that reside on the following pillars: a) Education focussed on the individual; b) Environmental education; c) Education of the Greek and foreign languages; d) Education, Culture and Sports; e) Digital Convergence.


In the primary cycle the subject called Studies of the Environment is taught during the first four grades. Within the context of both the Flexible Zone and elective after-school activity programmes, Environmental Education, Health Education, Artistic and Cultural projects are also being implemented.


Lower secondary cycle: Parallel to the national cross-thematic curriculum, innovative actions and themes have been introduced such as Health Education, Youth Entrepreneurship, Environmental Education, Flexible Zone of Innovative Actions, Cultural Programmes, School Vocational Guidance, and Olympic Education with respective programmes.


Upper secondary cycle: there is one elective subject called Principles of Environmental Science that can be chosen by the second grade pupils, irrespective of their stream.


HUNGARY


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2008/2009


Primary and lower secondary cycles: The National Core Curriculum includes the areas of learning called “Our earth and our environment” and “Man and nature”. The Framework Curricula include a subject called “Our environment”, which is available at all 4 primary grades, while for the 5th and 6th grades another subject called “Nature” is available.


Upper secondary cycle: The National Core Curriculum includes the subject area called “Our earth and our environment”, but only for the first 2 grades of the cycle. Another area called “Man and nature” is available for all 4 grades.


“The most important cross-curricular issues – the environment, political life, migration, culture, and civilisation – are built on curricular nodes. These issues are already present in the current curricula and programmes, but in the traditional breakdown of subjects, most of these elements of content could fit in a lesson on history, geography, sociology, natural sciences, literature, languages, arts, or religious studies. This is the way in which the cross-curricular approach of the European dimension fits into a traditional framework.”


ISRAEL


MoEd website


The website gives a list of existing subjects divided in clusters and the “Environmental Sciences” subject has been included in the Sciences cluster, along with Mathematics, Physics, Biology, etc. However, there is no indication to what levels of education this subject is taught to.


KAZAKHSTAN


MoEd website


Primary level (grades 1-4): one subject called “Knowledge of the world” is possibly related to environment and sustainability and it is given in all the 4 years.


Lower secondary level (grades 5-9): the general “Natural history” subject is given only in 5th grade, followed by specialised natural science subjects in the other years (like Physics, Chemistry, etc).


There is no mention on relevant subject for the upper secondary level. There is no mention of elective courses possibility.


KOSOVO


Education for Sustainable Development in Kosovo Research Report (http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/KOS_ESD_ENG.pdf)


In the strategy for environment in Kosovo, education for sustainability is considered as an eighth priority from ten priorities. Also, on this Strategy one chapter treats the situation of education linked with education for sustainability. Strategic orientations which come out from this Strategy for sustainable education are: a) Integration of environment issues in all levels of education and b) Institutional and financial support of increasing the level of population with information linked with the environment.


Kosovo's curriculum is structured around 6 learning areas that apply from pre-school up to upper secondary education (including both general and vocational education). The fourth one is Society and Environment. This competence foresees that a student should master Life, work and environment-related competency with a final outcome that the student should be productive contributor.


LATVIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


Goals of compulsory education curriculum are […] to promote responsible attitude towards oneself, family, society, surrounding environment and the state.


Educational institutions should provide also optional subjects in each of the compulsory educational subject areas (Languages and communicative sciences; Mathematics, natural and technical sciences; Social sciences and culture education; Sport). All educational programmes in the respective subjects should include themes on health education, environment education, education of the work safety and the state defence.


Latvia is also participating in the project “Baltic 21E” of the Council of Baltic Sea states, with the aim to promote education for sustainable development in all levels of education.


LITHUANIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


Primary cycle: A subject called “Perception and understanding of the world” is taught in all 4 grades.


Lower secondary cycle (grades 5-10): A subject called “Nature and man” is taught in the first two grades. Environmental education is integrated into vocational training.


Upper secondary cycle (grades 11-12): A subject called “Integrated course of natural science” is taught in both grades.


To strengthen education for sustainable development on the governmental level, on 2 August 2000, the Ministry of Education and Science signed an agreement with the UNDP concerning the Education for Sustainable Development Project (the UNDP contribution amounts to USD 25,000). In 2006, in line with the resolution of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ‘On Implementation and Coordination of the Strategy on Education for Sustainable Development’, the Lithuanian Government approved the National Programme of Education for Sustainable Development for 2007–2015.


MALTA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2006/2007


In the primary cycle there is no specific environment or sustainability-related subject (there is only a “Science” subject taught in all 6 grades).


The subjects at lower secondary level include Environmental Studies (History, Geography and Social Studies). The curriculum subjects offered are divided into groups to ensure that students study both the Humanities and the Sciences, even though they obviously would have a particular preference for either Humanities or Sciences. The curricular subjects at upper secondary level are grouped in four areas, of which Group 3 states: Applied Mathematics (Mechanics), Biology, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Physics, Pure Mathematics.


“An education with a global perspective allows students to realise that much of what is happening in one's country is conditioned by external events. One ought to promote the view that sustainability of life on earth is contingent on our everyday choices.”


MOLDOVA


MoEd website (2006 curricula subjects)


Primary and lower secondary levels: In 5th grade the subject called “Science” includes basic knowledge about nature, ecology and environmental protection.


Upper secondary level: no special subject


MONTENEGRO


Action plan Integration of sustainable development into educational system 2007-2009 Montenegro (http://www.erisee.org/node/downloads/library_montenegro/action_plan_integrtion_of_sustainable.pdf)


The aim of developing Action plan is to create conditions for planned introduction of sustainable development contents into our educational system.


Educational system reform should upgrade educational level of population with the clear awareness of how important is sustainable development in the process of European integration. Such a reform is to be carried out in a gradual, systematic and comprehensive manner. New Curricula are modernized and adjusted to contemporary requirements in that field in Europe. They are built in a function of a goal-oriented planning of contents and teachers themselves can choose methods and activities by which the goals can be best achieved. New subject curricula are opened – teachers themselves, pupils and schools in cooperation with the local community, can create around 20% of contents. The percentage of sustainable development contents within new subject curricula is very high. Compulsory elective subjects are introduced in primary schools, high schools and secondary vocational schools. Pupils have the chance to choose a certain number of subjects in which they can best express their creativity and satisfy their interests.


At both primary and secondary levels the action plan states some terms and determinants, of which the following are of particular interest: Designing elective subject curricula, Introducing sustainable development contents in existing subject curricula, Filling 20% of non- planned teaching contents within subject curricula with contents of sustainable development, Broadening correlations in subjects where they exist already as well as in those where such contents exist only partially.


POLAND


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


One of the basic formulated principles of the system of education is to […] provide the dissemination of environmental education.


Primary cycle: “Natural science” is a subject taught in all 6 grades of this cycle. Beside this, the ecological education path is available for the last 3 yeas of the cycle. The school head is responsible for the inclusion of this path in the curricula implemented by particular teachers.


Lower secondary cycle: Beside separate subjects, the ecological education path has been introduced at this stage and its inclusion in the curriculum is the head of school's responsibility.


Upper secondary cycle: Beside separate subjects, the ecological education theme has been introduced, among others, as cross curricular theme. The school head is responsible for the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum. Their implementation is assured by subject teachers through the inclusion of their content in the subject curricula. They can be also implemented in the framework of separate classes.


ROMANIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2008/2009


Primary education aims at “favouring sensibility towards general human issues and moral-civic values, towards respect for nature and environment”

.

Primary cycle: there are two subjects related to environment and sustainability, whose objectives are as follows:

  • Knowledge of the environment (1st and 2nd grades): Development of the capacities to observe, explore and understand the environment; Development of a positive attitude towards the environment through stimulating the interest for keeping a balanced environment and practice certain habits to care for and protect the environment
  • Natural sciences (3rd and 4th grades): Knowledge and use of terms and notions specific to natural sciences; Development of the capacity to explore/investigate reality and the capacity to experiment using adequate instruments and procedures; Development of the interest for a balanced and life-favouring natural environment.


At the lower and upper secondary cycles, the curriculum frameworks structure the curricular offer in two main parts: the central offer, represented by a common core curriculum, and the local offer, represented by the school based curriculum. The school based curriculum consists of one or several optional subjects and, depending on the case, of further or extended study classes of the core curriculum. Optional subjects are different subjects not included in the core curriculum for the given education level, route, profile, specialisation and grade. In some cases these subjects are introduced by the common curriculum for other education level, route, profile, specialisation and grade or suggested by the Ministry as a National Base of optional subjects (e.g. Health and Care, Ecology, European Studies, Local culture and traditions etc.). In these cases an adapted syllabi can be used. For optional subjects that are not part of the National Curriculum the teachers proposing the optional subjects have to prepare the syllabi and to submit it for approval to the County School Inspectorate.


Furthermore, at both secondary levels, general natural science subjects (such as Geography, Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Technology) are stated to have as educational objectives environment-related issues, depending on their respective focus.


Additional info: http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/ROM_ESD_eng.pdf


RUSSIA


MoEd website


The curriculum in Russia at both primary and secondary levels contains a federal compulsory component, as well as regional and institution components.


Primary level (grades 1-4): one subject called “The world around us (people, nature, society)” is possibly related to environment and sustainability and it is given in all the 4 years.


Lower secondary level (grades 5-9): the general “Natural history” subject is given only in 5th grade, followed by specialised natural science subjects in the other years (like Physics, Chemistry, etc).


SERBIA


MoEd website (information very hard to follow due to many amendments to regulations)


Primary and lower secondary cycles: During the first 2 years of the cycle (grades 1-2) the subject “The world around us” is given and in the 3rd and 4th grades it is replaced by the subject “Nature and Society”. Some elective courses are also available (such as “Discovering the world” and ”Guardians of nature”).


Upper secondary cycle: no indication of environment or sustainability-related subject


SLOVAKIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


The objective of education at all levels is to offer to pupils ethical, aesthetic, craft, health, physical, informatic and ecological education.


At primary and lower secondary level the educational areas are intertwined by cross-sectional themes to extend the basic subject matter. The stress on the application nature should contribute to the extending the pupils‘ view, adoption of certain attitudes, values and decision-making. They may be instructed within the framework of individual subjects or in the form of courses, eventual, independent optional subject. Environmental education is one of the cross-sectional themes. Also, “Natural science” is a subject taught in all 4 years of the primary cycle.


For all education levels there is a framework curricula that sets up compulsory and non-compulsory subjects, the number of weekly hours and total number of hours per year. Other non-compulsory subjects may be introduced according to pupils’ interests and the school conditions. Schools have a possibility to prepare syllabi for optional subjects too.


SLOVENIA


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2008/2009


One of the stated general aims of basic education is to encourage pupils’ personal health-care and environmental care.


Primary and lower secondary levels: “Environmental education” is a subject taught for the first three years of the primary education. The national curricular documents give the curriculum for the 9-year basic school, syllabi for compulsory and optional subjects along with the definitions of cross curricular content, extra-curricular activities, after-school classes and other forms of day-care and out-of-school classes (»lessons in nature«).


Besides realising general education outcomes, upper secondary schools also have the responsibility to develop a sense of responsibility to oneself, to others and to the environment. In general upper secondary schools, 81% to 93% of the programme is compulsory, while the remainder is chosen by students. Students have the least choice of electives in the first year and the most in their final year. In the context of optional subjects and activities, students take part in problem solving research, fieldwork, and interdisciplinary project work. This takes place under teachers' supervision and in different forms: as excursions, sports and research camps, project weeks and similar. Elective themes include interdisciplinary and general themes, such as: education for family, peace and non-violence; environment; business; sports, cultural and artistic activities; volunteer social work; translation; civic culture; successful learning; first aid; and road and traffic regulations.


Additional info: http://www.enjoined.edupolicy.net/files/SLO_ESD_eng.pdf

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

NB: Numbers in square brackets refer to sources listed under each subsection. Quote marks have been used where information is directly copied or directly translated.

1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

  • Vision of the Ministry of Education [1]: “The Ministry is a high performing and dynamic organization leading a quality education system that is responsive to the diverse needs of 21st century learners to contribute to the education and versatility of holistically developed children who are able to satisfy the human capital needs and sustainable development of society.”

2. PRIMARY CURRICULUM

  • Updated curriculum (as of Feb 2014) - this curriculum is being phased in [7]
  • Overall comments: Not much mention of sustainability, but repeated emphasis of values of social responsibility and positive interaction with natural and social environment, particularly in the areas of Agricultural Science, Science and Social Studies.

Primary: Learning level achievements [2]

  • There are 14 learning level achievements for the primary curriculum, which include the following (graded by school year):
  • Related to relationship with environment:
    • “Behave respectfully toward the environment under supervision.” (Infants 1-2)
    • “Understand that individual actions contribute to the environmental health of both local and national communities.” (Standard 1-3)
    • “Recognise the symbiotic relationship between self and environment and acknowledge in behaviour that every action has a consequence.” (Standard 4-5)
  • Related to social justice
    • “Demonstrate fair and equitable play habits.” (Infants 1-2)
    • “Understand that social interaction requires giving as well as taking.” (Standard 1-3)
    • “Become actively involved in issues involving social justice.” (Standard 4-5)

Primary: Individual Subjects [3]

  • 9 subjects are taught: Agricultural Science; English Language Arts; Mathematics; Physical Education; Science; Social Studies; Spanish; Values, Character and Citizenship Education; Visual and Performing Arts. The following have teaching most relevant to the issues of sustainable development and the environment:
  • AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE: Includes teaching on the environment; attitudes towards the environment
    • Extracts from ‘How is agricultural science structured?:
    • “The curriculum emphasizes food security and preservation of the environment, with a focus on Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). It provides the means by which our students are sensitised to the value and importance of agriculture to themselves, our communities, our country, and the world at large.”
    • “As important as food security and our inalienable rights to food and nutrition, is a global concern about our fragile planet. The introduction of environmental awareness and the development of stewardship education becomes an important component in every child’s Agricultural Science learning.”
    • Topics include: (1) Agriculture as a Business; (2) Crop Science; (3) Livestock Science; (4) The Environment; (5) People in Agriculture
  • PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Includes themes of personal responsibility towards society & environment
    • Under ‘Why Study In This Learning Area?’: “Through learning and by accepting challenges in health-related and movement contexts, students reflect on the nature of well-being and how to promote it. As they develop resilience and a sense of personal and social responsibility, they are increasingly able to take responsibility for themselves and contribute to the well-being of those around them, of their communities, of their environments (including natural environments), and of the wider society”
  • SCIENCE: Includes teaching on relationship between humans & environment
    • From the 4 concepts of science:
      • “3. Systems and Interactions among them: The connections that exist among components of the various systems of living and non-living things are explored. Students develop a greater understanding of the environment as they evaluate the effectiveness of the systems studied.”
      • “4. Conservation and sustainability of natural resources: Students consider the impact of human actions in order to appreciate the delicate balance that exists between human needs and those of the environment.”
  • SOCIAL STUDIES: Includes themes of responsible citizenship; environmental awareness; keeping environment clean
    • “The Social Studies content was developed from the following foundational strands: Personal and Social Development; Our Heritage; Our Environment; Organisations; Change”
  • VALUES, CHARACTER AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION (VCCE)
    • Aims at promoting positive modern citizenship values; encouraging children “to be responsible and caring citizens and to practise socially helpful behaviour” (from “What is VCCE?”)

3. SECONDARY CURRICULUM

  • General comments
    • Sustainability and sustainable development mentioned in curriculum
    • Issues of global citizenship and social responsibility emphasised throughout.
    • Areas of integrated science and social studies particularly important, as well as technology education

Secondary: Essential Learning Outcomes [4]

  • There are 6 essential learning outcomes for secondary education: aesthetic expression; citizenship; communication; personal development; problem solving; technological competence. Those that have most relevance to sustainable development / the environment are as follows:
  • CITIZENSHIP: “Students situate themselves in a multicultural, multi-ethnic environment, and understand clearly the contribution they must make to social, cultural, economic, and environmental development in the local and global context.”
    • Includes objective that students “demonstrate understanding of sustainable development and its implications for the environment locally and globally”
  • PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
    • Includes: “reflect critically on ethical and other issues; deal effectively with change and become agents for positive, effective change.”
  • TECHNOLOGICAL COMPETENCE
    • Includes: “demonstrate understanding of ethical issues related to the use of technology in local and global contexts.”

Secondary: Forms 1-3 - Individual Subjects [5]

  • 8 core curriculum subjects: English Language Arts; Health and Physical Education; Mathematics; Science; Social Studies; Spanish; Technology Education; Visual and Performing Arts. Those with most relevance to sustainable development / the environment:
  • MATHEMATICS
    • “Apply mathematics in cultural, environmental, and global contexts” under ‘Breakdown by essential learning outcomes’ (see p.2-9)
  • INTEGRATED SCIENCE
    • Extract from ‘Rationale for teaching and learning science’:
    • “At the lower secondary level, students’ experiences in science will lead them to have a conceptual understanding of the natural world, of man’s place in it, and of his responsibility to maintain and preserve it. At the same time, science education will prepare students with scientific knowledge and skills for employment or for further education in technology, in science-related fields, and in different trades.
    • Thus, greater emphasis is placed in this curriculum on the outcomes of relating science and technology to each other, and to the world outside the school, as well as on the need for sustainable development. The development of students’ understanding of the concept of sustainability is stressed in a variety of contexts (e.g., in the study of ecology). Communication skills and the use of appropriate terminology are given greater emphasis, for example, students are expected to describe what they are doing by using the terminology associated with specific scientific and technological concepts.”
    • ‘General Intended Learning Outcomes’
    • “1. Understanding of the nature of Science
    • 2. Empowerment, attained through their knowledge of the role of Science in addressing the complex social issues related to the environment
    • 3. Mastery of the skills and knowledge required for scientific enquiry
    • 4. Willingness to acquire and apply scientific and technological knowledge to the mutual benefit of self, society and the environment.”
  • SOCIAL STUDIES
    • See under forms 4-5 for Extract from ‘Vision Statement’
    • See under forms 4-5 for 12 goals of Social Studies Programme
    • Sustainable development, environmental sustainability, sustainability in relation to natural resources and economic sustainability all mentioned in curriculum document
  • TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
    • Under the 12 ‘Expected General Learning Outcomes’: “6. develop respect and appreciation for the fragile natural environment; 7. be mindful of the importance of the safe use of materials and the disposal of unwanted waste”
    • Extracts from curriculum components. Of 4 components:
    • 3. Energy and the Built Environment: Uses of Energy; Sources of Energy; Conservation of Energy; Environmental Design
    • 4. Biological Technologies: Agricultural Technology; Medical and Health Technology; Environmental and Natural Resources Management Technology; Biotechnology
  • VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS
    • From ‘A Vision for Visual and Performing Arts Education’: Students “to develop visual sensitivity to nature and the environment”; links subject to global citizenship

Secondary: Forms 4-5 - Individual Subjects [6]

  • 7 core curriculum subjects: English/Language Arts; Mathematics; Science; Health and Physical Education; Spanish; Visual and Performing Arts; Social Studies. Those with most relevance to sustainable development / environment:
  • ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
    • Extract from ‘Rationale’: “In addition, as Trinidad and Tobago citizens continue to take their place on the world stage, learning to value diverse cultures and language experiences, they will develop those skills that have been deemed important for life in the 21st century and beyond (www.21stcenturyskill.org)”
      • 9 skills including “social responsibility”
  • INTEGRATED SCIENCE
    • Extract from ‘Rationale’:
    • “At the upper secondary level, students’ experiences in Science will lead them to have a conceptual understanding of the natural world, of man’s place in it, and of his responsibility to maintain and preserve it. At the same time, Science education will equip students with scientific knowledge and skills for employment or for further education in Technology, in Science-related fields and in different trades.
    • Thus, greater emphasis is placed in this Curriculum on the outcomes of relating Science and Technology to each other, and to the world outside the school, as well as on the need for sustainable development. The development of students’ understanding of the concept of sustainability is stressed in a variety of contexts (e.g., in the study of ecology). Communication skills and the use of appropriate terminology are given greater emphasis, for example, students are expected to describe what they are doing by using the terminology associated with specific scientific and technological concepts.”
    • Intended learning outcomes: as for lower secondary level
  • MATHEMATICS
    • Brief mention of sustainable environment in ‘Rationale’ under module ‘Taking control of space’ (see p. 2-M5–1)
  • VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS
    • ‘Rationale for the Visual and Performing Arts’ and ‘Subject Philosophy’ link the subject to cultural heritage; according to Rationale, “Arts Education provides an opportunity for students to explore and express feelings, to stimulate creativity and the imagination; to develop visual sensitivity to nature and the environment and to discover the visual richness of the qualitative world we inhabit.”
  • SOCIAL STUDIES
    • Extract from ‘Vision Statement’: “Social Studies educators envisage a curriculum that will support the development of a knowledgeable, caring, and responsible society. Students who have been exposed to this curriculum will demonstrate fundamental human values, show respect and appreciation for other cultures, and live harmoniously in a culturally diverse society such as ours. They will value and make every attempt to preserve the environment, and will act responsibly not only within their families and communities but also within the global village.”
    • The 12 Goals of the Social Studies Programme
    • 1. develop skills of lifelong learning and knowledge acquisition that are both socially acceptable and economically efficient;
    • 2. understand themselves as social beings in relationships with others such as family members, the community, the nation, the state, the Caribbean region, and other parts of the world;
    • 3. understand and manifest a practical awareness of their role in the family, and make positive attempts to become more productive, honest, loyal and contributing citizens of Trinidad and Tobago;
    • 4. critically evaluate current societal attitudes, trends, and values, and seek equitable solutions to problems;
    • 5. develop value systems that are logical and morally acceptable;
    • 6. gain knowledge and understanding of the human and physical environment, particularly of the Caribbean;
    • 7. understand how environmental factors interrelate to influence the activities of human beings and how such activities in turn affect and change the physical environment;
    • 8. evaluate the actions of human beings and assess the relative merits and problems of any particular forms of economic development or social transformation, as well as the environmental consequences of these activities;
    • 9. understand the importance of the exploitation of natural resources and the implications of the degradation and depletion of non-renewable resources;
    • 10. respect and be tolerant of the views, beliefs, and ways of life of other people and develop an appreciation for the culture of others in our diverse society;
    • 11. develop willingness to express a point of view on matters of concern—whether personal, local, national, regional, or global—in a positive, knowledgeable and candid way, while respecting the views of others;
    • 12. develop skills in the collection, collation, and positive and productive use of information.”
    • Various mentions of sustainable development under ‘Theme: Our Environment’ and once under “Caribbean Integration and Global Links’ (see full document)
  • SPANISH
    • Of the ‘Goals of the curriculum’, 6 is “Enhance students’ awareness of their responsibilities as individuals and as citizens of the global community;”

SOURCES

  1. Taken from the section ‘The National Curriculum Framework’ of each document on Primary Curriculum Guide. Documents available from google drive here
  2. Information in these sections taken from the relevant Primary Curriculum Guide for each subject. All documents available from google drive here
  3. Taken from Part 1 of each document under 'Revised National Curricula Level II'. All documents available here
  4. Information in these sections taken from the relevant Curriculum Guide for each subject under 'Revised National Curriculum for Forms 1-3':. All documents available here
  5. Information in these sections taken from the relevant Curriculum Guide for each subject under 'Revised National Curriculum Level II':. All documents available here


TURKEY


Eurybase – Organisation of the Education system 2009/2010


One of the primary education objectives is to get acquainted with the nature and preserve it.


Primary and lower secondary level (grades 1 to 8): The courses in the curriculum are divided into two branches as compulsory lessons and elective lessons. Elective courses to be instructed are determined at the beginning of the educational year by teachers’ board from “elective courses” section considering the conditions of school and environment, students’ interests, wishes and needs, and parents’ opinions. Schools may increase the elective courses kind by Ministerial approval considering students’ needs. In this condition, program/programs prepared is needed to be approved by Ministry.


Upper secondary level: If sufficient number of pupils, suitable school ambiance and teachers are provided, elective courses to orient pupils to entrepreneurship and productivity and suitable for the necessity and attributes of the local environment could be included to the curriculum by the educational region principles board. The curriculum for such elective courses is drafted by branch teachers in the educational region and implemented upon approval of province/district national education director. Elective courses are the courses allowing the pupils to develop in the selected branch/field or improve in various programs in accordance with personal interests and desires and to develop their personal skills.


UKRAINE


MoEd website


Primary level (grades 1-4): one subject called “Natural science” is given in all the 4 years.


Lower secondary level (grades 5-9): the general “Natural history” subject is given only in 5th and 6th grades, followed by specialised natural science subjects in the other years (like Physics, Chemistry, etc).


Upper secondary level (grades 10-12): the subject “Ecology” is given in 12th grade, but in all profiles (except the ecological one, where it is taught in all 3 years).


Elective courses are also possible to take at all levels.


INDIA


National Council of Educational Research and Training (www.ncert.nic.in)


Environmental education has been largely infused into several subjects, from grades I-XII. Distinct textbooks are available for grades VI-X.


Primary and upper primary stages:

At the primary stage, in most States/UTs integrated textbooks on environmental studies have been prescribed. In some states environmental concepts have also been integrated into language and mathematics, while in some others EVS has been bifurcated as 'science' and 'society' for which separate textbooks-cum-workbooks have been prescribed. In the NCERT curriculum, the teaching of language and mathematics has been woven around the children's immediate environment in Classes I—II and EE has been reinforced as a component of the Art of Healthy and Productive Living (AHPL). In Classes III-V, separate textbooks for environmental studies have been provided. By and large, the textbooks of science and the social sciences in most States/UTs include environmental concepts. Environmental concepts had been included in the NCERT curricula for the upper primary stage mainly through science and technology.


Secondary stage:

The concepts of EE have been prescribed in the textbooks of most States/UTs through science and the social sciences whether taught as integrated or separate subjects. NCERT textbooks of science and technology and integrated social science include various concepts of EE.


Higher secondary stage:

The majority of the concepts related to EE are found in the textbooks of biology, chemistry, physics, geography, economics, sociology and political science. This is true for NCERT and State/UT curricula. In conclusion, it can be said that EE is a compulsory part of the syllabus in schools throughout the country. EE in schools invariably aims at providing children with knowledge, attitudes and skills so that they are equipped to contribute meaningfully towards the betterment of the environment and accomplish the goal of sustainable development.”


PAKISTAN


MoEd website


Grades I-III: a “General Knowledge” subject introduces the basic notions about the Earth and environment, but it does not address the sustainability issue specifically.


Grades IV- X: the subject “General Science” addresses several aspects of environmentally related issues, as well as the sustainable development topic in various circumstances.


General subjects like Biology, Chemistry and Physics are taught in grades IX-XII (while Geography becomes a separate subject in grades VI-VIII). However, there is no mention of explicitly introducing the notions of environment and sustainability in these subjects.

BANGLADESH


National Curriculum & Textbook Board Authority (http://nctb.gov.bd)


Primary cycle: Two subjects (Environmental Studies – Society and Environmental Studies - Science) give the preliminary notions about environment and sustainability.


Secondary cycle: the “General Science” subject may carry some environment and sustainability related topics.


NEPAL



MoEd document (http://librarykvpattom.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/ncf-nepal.pdf)


“The learning areas which set out what students should be taught are the following: Languages (official, national and international), Mathematics, Social Studies, Creative Arts and Expressions, Science, Health and Physical Education, Environmental Education, Information and Communication Technology, Local Need Based Study, and Work, Occupation and Trade.”


“The objectives of primary education are the following: […] To develop basic knowledge in science, mathematics, environment, health, information technology, and life skills.”


“The objectives of secondary education are the following: […] To familiarize with national history, culture, geography, economics and environment to recognize the importance of multicultural and multiethnic diversity to maintain and build national unity, harmony, and peace for national development.”


At the primary level, one of the learning areas is Science, which includes General Science, Environmental Education, Health and Physical Education.


At the secondary level, the curriculum structure is visualized at two stages: grades 9 and 10 and grades 11 and 12. The following learning areas will be offered at the first stage of the secondary level covering various subjects: Languages, Science, Mathematics, Social Science, Occupation, Trade and Vocation. During the first stage, students will be given the opportunity to learn subjects like English, Nepali, General Science, Social Studies, and Mathematics as core subjects. They will also be required to select one subject from the Occupation, Trade and Vocation learning area. In addition, students will have to choose one subject from one of the following learning areas: Language, Science, and Social Science. Schools will provide as many choices as possible. At the second stage of secondary level, the students will have the opportunity to study two fields of study: i) academic, and ii) technical and vocational education. In the academic field, there will be separate streams of Social Sciences, Management, and Science.

sustainability.txt · Last modified: 2014/08/19 12:37 by sarah